In this flat-floored section the Rhine has been straightened. Since the time when the Rhine valley became incorporated into the Roman Empire, the river has been one of Europe’s leading transport routes. For the army of Germania Superior: one legion, II Augusta, at Argentoratum (Strasbourg); and one, XIII Gemina, at Vindonissa (Windisch). This is a long day but very easy going. : "Water of the Russein"). The implementation of measures according to the WFd in the EU member States along the Rhine has at the same time brought about progress for the programme „Rhine 2020“. Near Krefeld, the river crosses the Uerdingen line, the line which separates the areas where Low German and High German are spoken. These state projects were part of the advanced and technical progress efforts going on in the country alongside the industrial revolution. The culminating point of the Anterior Rhine's drainage basin is the Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres (11,854 ft) above sea level. In this flat-floored section the Rhine has been straightened and the banks reinforced to prevent flooding. Since approximately 600,000 years ago, six major Ice Ages have occurred, in which sea level dropped 120 m (390 ft) and much of the continental margins became exposed. The river now flows north as Upper Rhine through the Upper Rhine Plain, which is about 300 km long and up to 40 km wide. A tundra, with Ice Age flora and fauna, stretched across middle Europe, from Asia to the Atlantic Ocean. The Rhine was not known to Herodotus and first enters the historical period in the 1st century BC in Roman-era geography. If you need a reason to visit, the UNESCO World Heritage website has described the area’s beauty well: “The Rhine is one of the world's great rivers and has witnessed many crucial events in human history. By the 6th century, the Rhine was within the borders of Francia. Beyond these rivers she held only the fertile plain of Frankfurt, opposite the Roman border fortress of Moguntiacum (Mainz), the southernmost slopes of the Black Forest and a few scattered bridge-heads. It includes the Austrian towns of Gaißau, Höchst and Fußach. [note 3], The spelling with Rh- in English Rhine as well as in German Rhein and French Rhin is due to the influence of Greek orthography, while the vocalisation -i- is due to the Proto-Germanic adoption of the Gaulish name as *Rīnaz, via Old Frankish giving Old English Rín,[3] The English Channel, the Irish Channel and most of the North Sea were dry land, mainly because sea level was approximately 120 m (390 ft) lower than today. At the end of World War I, the Rhineland was subject to the Treaty of Versailles. Although many plants and factories can be found along the Rhine up into Switzerland, it is along the Lower Rhine that the bulk of them are concentrated, as the river passes the major cities of Cologne, Düsseldorf and Duisburg. As a meandering river, it reworked its ice-age floodplain. It descends from 395 m to 252 m. Some stretches of the High Rhine between Stein am Rhein and Eglisau form the border between Switzerland on the south bank and Germany in the north. An international waterway since the Treaty of Vienna in 1815, it is navigable overall for some 540 miles (870 km), as far as Rheinfelden on the Swiss-German border. In the local Alemannic dialect, the singular is pronounced "Isel" and this is also the local pronunciation of Esel ("Donkey"). It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site (2002) and known as "the Romantic Rhine", with more than 40 castles and fortresses from the Middle Ages and many quaint and lovely country villages. The Lower Rhine flows through North Rhine-Westphalia. Downstream the Rhine flows swiftly between the Alpine foreland and the Black Forest region, its course interrupted by rapids, where—as at Laufenburg (Switzerland) and Säckingen and Schwörstadt (Germany)—barrages (dams) have been built. Later an artificial ditch of about two km was dug. This system of numerous bays, estuary-like extended rivers, many islands and constant changes of the coastline, is hard to imagine today. But it didn't used to be that way. The delta is delimited in the west by the Alter Rhein ("Old Rhine") and in the east by a modern canalized section. In Mainz, the Rhine leaves the Upper Rhine Valley and flows through the Mainz Basin. The top schedule is from Mainz to Cologne; the botttom one, the reverse. For other uses, see. Specifically, its shorelines lie in the German states of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg, the Austrian state of Vorarlberg, and the Swiss cantons of Thurgau and St. Gallen. Since then, during glacial times, the river mouth was located offshore of Brest, France and rivers, like the River Thames and the Seine, became tributaries to the Rhine. Scheduled Cruises. In the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism. The northern section of this frontier, where the Rhine is deep and broad, remained the Roman boundary until the empire fell. More than just a 65-kilometre stretch of the Middle Rhine Valley between Bingen/Rudesheim and Koblenz, the strongly flowing narrows of the World Heritage-listed Rhine Gorge, guarded by its forest of about 40 hilltop castles and fortresses, is the stuff of legend. Former Reader in Geography, Queen Mary College, University of London. In the 21st century the river has continued its role as an important trade artery. Discussion of castles along the Rhine River, with a look at their upkeep. In Wesel, 30 km downstream of Duisburg, is located the western end of the second east–west shipping route, the Wesel-Datteln Canal, which runs parallel to the Lippe. In the geologically recent past the main process distributing sediment across the delta has been the shifting of river channels to new locations on the floodplain (termed avulsion). Seven Days to the River Rhine was a Warsaw Pact war plan for an invasion of Western Europe during the Cold War. There remained some dry land in the southern North Sea, known as Doggerland, connecting mainland Europe to Britain. Drought-hit cargo river sparks economic fears", "Maps of Switzerland – Swiss Confederation – GEWISS", "Hydrometrische MessstationRhein-Diepoldsau - Stationsposter", Extreme Hochwasser des Rheins bei Basel – Herleitung von Szenarien, "Atlas der Schweiz Switzerland maps by Swiss Federal Office of Topography", "Fluvial Deposits As a Record for Late Quaternary Neotectonic Activity in the Rhine-Meuse Delta, The Netherlands", "Architecture of the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta (the Netherlands) – A result of changing external controls", Navigation details for 80 French rivers and canals,, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, All articles containing potentially dated statements, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2014, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles containing Alemannic German-language text, Articles containing Old English (ca. The Rhine: an eco-biography, 1815–2000. With globally shrinking ice-cover, ocean water levels rose and the English Channel and North Sea re-inundated. The Ruhr currently provides the region with drinking water. Numerous larger and smaller tributary rivers bear the name of the Rhine or equivalent in various Romansh idioms like Rein or Ragn. [22] Engineering along the Rhine eased flooding and made transportation along the river less cumbersome. Examples: Next to Reichenau in Tamins the Anterior Rhine and the Posterior Rhine join and form the Alpine Rhine. At Andernach, where the ancient Roman frontier left the Rhine, the basaltic Seven Hills rise steeply to the east of the river, where, as the English poet Lord Byron put it, “the castle crag of Dachenfels frowns o’er the wide and winding Rhine.”. the geography and geology of its present-day watershed has been developing since the Alpine orogeny began. The Rhine Gorge between Rüdesheim am Rhein and Koblenz is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Upper Rhine has undergone significant human change since the 19th century. Lake Constance consists of three bodies of water: the Obersee ("upper lake"), the Untersee ("lower lake"), and a connecting stretch of the Rhine, called the Seerhein ("Lake Rhine"). It starts with the creek Aua da Russein (lit. The mouths of the Rhine, in the county of Holland, fell to the Burgundian Netherlands in the 15th century; Holland remained contentious territory throughout the European wars of religion and the eventual collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, when the length of the Rhine fell to the First French Empire and its client states. Not long before Tulla went to work on widening and straightening the river heavy floods had brought significant loss of life. The Rhine and the Danube formed most of the northern inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days, the Rhine has been a vital navigable waterway carrying trade and goods deep inland. An international waterway since the Treaty of Vienna in 1815, it is navigable overall for some 540 miles (870 km), as far as Rheinfelden on the Swiss-German border. Traveling along and on the Rhine River has long been popular. The actual number of legions present at any base or in all, depended on whether a state or threat of war existed. In northwest Europe, it saw two very cold phases, peaking around 70,000 BP and around 29,000–24,000 BP. In this sections the river falls from 77.4 m above sea level to 50.4 m. On the left, is located the mountain ranges of Hunsrück and Eifel, on the right Taunus and Westerwald. Nonetheless, the middle Rhine (the section between the German cities of Bingen and Bonn), with such steep rock precipices as the Lorelei crag and numerous castles, still presents breathtaking vistas and attracts tourists. Other factors of importance to the shape of the delta are the local tectonic activities of the Peel Boundary Fault, the substrate and geomorphology, as inherited from the Last Glacial and the coastal-marine dynamics, such as barrier and tidal inlet formations.[27]. Thereafter, canals were dug, bends were straightened and groynes were built to prevent the river's channels from migrating or silting up. The Rhine River, Europe’s premier waterway, flows from the Swiss Alps to the North Sea through Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, France, Germany, and the Netherlands. the zambezi river is twice as long as the st. lawrence river. Timetable Rhine. Coeval absolute sea-level rise and tectonic subsidence have strongly influenced delta evolution. In some places, there are large compensation pools, for example, the huge Bassin de compensation de Plobsheim in Alsace. Rhine River - Rhine River - History: The effects of rivers on the regions through which they flow tend to alternate between trends toward unifying the regions culturally and politically and making a political boundary of the river. The middle Rhine is the most spectacular and romantic reach of the river. Until the early 1980s, industry was a major source of water pollution. KD gives discounts of 50% on regular Rhine River day cruises to school children and students up to 27 years old – IDs are required. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Pick a cruise length. The Rhein (Rhine) is the biggest river in Germany. Here the Rhine flows through the largest conurbation in Germany, the Rhine-Ruhr region. Rhine Falls, on the upper Rhine River near Schaffhausen, Switzerland. This view is typified by Res Gestae Divi Augusti, a long public inscription of Augustus, in which he boasts of his exploits; including, sending an expeditionary fleet north of the Rheinmouth, to Old Saxony and Jutland, which he claimed no Roman had ever done before. The Old English river name was variously inflected as masculine or feminine; and its Old Icelandic adoption was inflected as feminine.[5]. Can someone please give us suggestions on coming from Frankfurt airport to drive along the Rhine and then crossing over to the other side to end up in Bacharach. From Bonn the Rhein (Rhine) river bears the name Unterrhein (Underrhine) and forms from Emmerich together with the Meuse a distinctive mouth delta of which the river Waal is the main arm. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The bridges at Nijmegen, over the Waal distributary of the Rhine, were also an objective of Operation Market Garden. The Confederation of the Rhine was established by Napoleon, as a French client state, in 1806 and lasted until 1814, during which time it served as a significant source of resources and military manpower for the First French Empire. Here are a few highlights Viking reveals to you: On the few remaining natural sections, there are still several rapids. The Rhine is the longest river in Germany. Once an integral cog in the industrial heritage of Europe, the Rhine now serves as the perfect river cruising destination. We realised it could be the death of the Rhine otherwise And the best way to see it is to cruise it. It is here that the Rhine encounters some more of its main tributaries, such as the Neckar, the Main and, later, the Moselle, which contributes an average discharge of more than 300 m3/s (11,000 cu ft/s). The large sediment loads are partly due to the extensive land improvements upstream. The Alsace on the left banks of the Upper Rhine was sold to Burgundy by Archduke Sigismund of Austria in 1469 and eventually fell to France in the Thirty Years' War. Here a number of river islands occur, locally known as "Rheinauen". The IJssel branch carries one ninth of the water flow of the Rhine north into the IJsselmeer (a former bay), while the Nederrijn carries approximately two-ninths of the flow west along a route parallel to the Waal. Starting from the Swiss town of Basel, the river flows for 435 miles through Germany, past France and eventually to … Here the Rhine Valley is at its most beautiful and most romantic. The Seine, however, runs only through France and so you can get to know Paris, its amazing capital, in a more personal way. A hillside vineyard along the Rhine River. Most of the water flows via the Constance hopper into the Rheinrinne ("Rhine Gutter") and Seerhein. The river is significantly shortened from its natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century. In a separate operation, the Ludendorff Bridge, crossing the Rhine at Remagen, became famous, when U.S. forces were able to capture it intact – much to their own surprise – after the Germans failed to demolish it. The main elements of this rift are the Upper Rhine Graben, in southwest Germany and eastern France and the Lower Rhine Embayment, in northwest Germany and the southeastern Netherlands. The river Rhine is Western Europe's most important waterway. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Its sources are located in the Adula Alps (Rheinwaldhorn, Rheinquellhorn, and Güferhorn). The Germanic populations of these lands seem in Roman times to have been scanty, and Roman subjects from the modern Alsace-Lorraine had drifted across the river eastwards. In Roman geography, the Rhine formed the boundary between Gallia and Germania by definition; e.g. The Rhine is an important waterway. Meltwater, adding to the ocean and land subsidence, drowned the former coasts of Europe transgressionally. Large cities that are situated on the Rhine: Smaller cities that are situated on the Rhine: During its course from the Alps to the North Sea, the Rhine passes through four countries and constitutes six different country borders. Its course is conventionally divided as follows: The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein and Rein Posteriur/Hinterrhein next to Reichenau in Tamins. It is mentioned by, most notably the straighening of the Upper Rhine planned by, The geomorphological ridge line does not necessarily coincide with the, sum of Vorderrhein and Hinterrhein discharges according to, Average over the period 1961–1990: 1,297 m, Cioc, Mark. The Rhine: an eco-biography, 1815–2000. Approximately 800 miles long, the Rhine River is one of Europe's most important waterways, as well as one of its most popular rivers to cruise. At the confluence of Aare and Rhine, the Aare at 560 m³/s carries more water on average than the Rhine at 439 m³/s, so that hydrographically speaking the Rhine is a right tributary of the Aare. The other third of the water flows through the Pannerdens Kanaal and redistributes in the IJssel and Nederrijn. 2015, among others, rivers such as the Rhine are to be not only clean, but also ecologically intact. This discharge distribution has been maintained since 1709 by river engineering works including the digging of the Pannerdens canal and the installation, in the 20th century, of a series of weirs on the Nederrijn. Strategically successful, they are also considered masterpieces of military engineering. One of the most important cities in this region is Duisburg with the largest river port in Europe (Duisport). Savings range from 10% for groups of 10 to 30% for groups of 30 paying cruisers. Length: 1233 km (765 miles) Source: Grisons in the Swiss Alps (Switzerland) Mouth: North Sea, Hoek van Holland, Rotterdam (Netherlands) Other Facts About the River Rhine. The southern half of the Upper Rhine forms the border between France (Alsace) and Germany (Baden-Württemberg). Two-thirds of the water flow volume of the Rhine flows farther west, through the Waal and then, via the Merwede and Nieuwe Merwede (De Biesbosch), merging with the Meuse, through the Hollands Diep and Haringvliet estuaries, into the North Sea. Below Chur, the Rhine leaves the Alps to form the boundary first between Switzerland and the principality of Liechtenstein and then between Switzerland and Austria, before forming a delta as the current slackens at the entrance to Lake Constance. The Third Army did just that on the night of 22/23 March, crossing the river with a hasty assault south of Mainz at Oppenheim. Downstream, the regulated Neckar, after crossing the Oden uplands in a spectacular gorge as far as Heidelberg, enters the Rhine at Mannheim; and the Main leaves the plain of lower Franconian Switzerland for the Rhine opposite Mainz. The average death on the Rhine is only 9 feet. This caused the Rhine's course to be diverted through the English Channel. Duisburg, which lies at the mouth of the Ruhr River, handles the bulk of the waterborne coal and coke from the Ruhr as well as imports of iron ore and oil. The Rhine River is a popular river. Author of. Between Eglisau and Basel, the High Rhine consistently forms the border. It is 820 miles long. Like the Upper Rhine, the Lower Rhine used to meander until engineering created a solid river bed. Also, should we reserve ahead of time since we have a particular day in mind? As it approaches the Dutch border, the Rhine has an annual mean discharge of 2,290 m3/s (81,000 cu ft/s) and an average width of 400 m (1,300 ft). About 11000 years ago, the Rhine estuary was in the Strait of Dover. At present, the branches Waal and Nederrijn-Lek discharge to the North Sea through the former Meuse estuary, near Rotterdam. The latter flows west into a sluice at Katwijk, where its waters can be discharged into the North Sea. The compression and orogeny continue today, as shown by the ongoing raising of the mountains a small amount each year and the active volcanoes. The Dornbirner Ach had to be diverted, too, and it now flows parallel to the canalized Rhine into the lake. Here the Rhine Valley is at its most beautiful and most romantic. The river begins in Grisons, Switzerland, and its headwaters emerge from Lake Tomasee, which is considered the primary source of the Rhine. At this time, the plain of the Lower Rhine was the territory of the Ubii. Vespasian had commanded II Augusta, before his promotion to imperator. 7 1. The section of the Upper Rhine downstream from Mainz is also known as the "Island Rhine". The Romans kept eight legions in five bases along the Rhine. Without committing yourself to a certain route in advance, the Rhine Pass allows you to enjoy the Rhine Valley with its numerous beautiful castles, endless vineyards, the Loreley and much, much more. The first part acts as the border between France and Germany. The falls are just a single drop waterfall, however with a width of 150 metres and a height of 23 metres, its size is impressive. In the 9th, it formed part of the border between Middle and Western Francia, Caesar's bridges across the Rhine, the first two bridges to cross the Rhine River on record, were built by Julius Caesar and his legionaries during the Gallic War in 55 BC and 53 BC. You could actually take a Rhine River day cruise from certain part of the river. The Rhine: an eco-biography, 1815–2000. The Rhine is a 764-mile long river located in the central and western regions of Europe. There the river is spanned by the modern Severin Bridge and by the rebuilt Hohenzollern railway bridge, which carries the line from Aachen to Düsseldorf and the Ruhr industrial region. Around 2.5 million years ago (ending 11,600 years ago) was the geological period of the Ice Ages. The Rhine River Valley seems straight out of the pages of a storybook, a land of half-timbered houses, fairytale castles, and ruined fortresses looming atop craggy hills. The length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in "Rhine-kilometers" (Rheinkilometer), a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance (0 km) to Hoek van Holland (1036.20 km). On the various parts: Order: panning north to south through the Western Netherlands: This article is about the river. Before the St. Elizabeth's flood (1421), the Meuse flowed just south of today's line Merwede-Oude Maas to the North Sea and formed an archipelago-like estuary with Waal and Lek. In Bonn, where the Sieg flows into the Rhine, the Rhine enters the North German Plain and turns into the Lower Rhine. River Cruises. This branch once formed the line along which the Limes Germanicus were built. The northwestern part of the estuary (around Hook of Holland), is still called Maasmond ("Meuse Mouth"), ignoring the fact that it now carries only water from the Rhine. The most important tributaries in this area are the Ill below of Strasbourg, the Neckar in Mannheim and the Main across from Mainz. Rhine River - Rhine River - Hydrology: The Alpine Rhine—with its steep gradient, high runoff coefficient (80 percent of the precipitation in its catchment area), pronounced winter minimum, high water in spring from snowmelt, and high early summer maximum resulting from heavy summer rains—has a characteristic Alpine regime. The exception is the old city centre of Constance, on the Swiss side of the river. The Rhine then had the Sieg as a tributary, but not yet the Moselle. [29] This has caused increased flooding and sedimentation, ending peat formation in the delta. Its catchment area, including the delta area, exceeds 85,000 square miles (220,000 square km). Loops, oxbows, branches and islands were removed along the Upper Rhine so that there would be a present uniformity to the river. Rhine cruises. The river’s majesty has long been celebrated in music. The last section of the Rhine lies below the frontier town of Emmerich in the delta region of the Netherlands. It is 820 miles long. In addition, were a double legion, XIV and XVI, at Moguntiacum (Mainz). Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. I read about this in Rick Steve's book but don't know which cruise line to check with on this. Cruises along the Rhine River run from four to 21 nights. With its outstanding architectural monuments, the slopes full of vines, settlements crowded on the narrow river banks and scores of castles lined up along the top of the steep slopes, the Middle Rhine Valley can be considered the epitome of the Rhine romanticism. The Rhine has been navigable between Basel and Rheinfelden since 1934. As northwest Europe slowly began to warm up from 22,000 years ago onward, frozen subsoil and expanded alpine glaciers began to thaw and fall-winter snow covers melted in spring. Below Bonn the valley opens out into a broad plain, where the old city of Cologne lies on the left bank of the Rhine. The Seerhein is only four km long. The Rhine River is a very popular day-trip destination from cities such as Cologne (Köln) and Frankfurt am Main. From here, the situation becomes more complicated, as the Dutch name Rijn no longer coincides with the main flow of water. In southern Europe, the stage was set in the Triassic Period of the Mesozoic Era, with the opening of the Tethys Ocean, between the Eurasian and African tectonic plates, between about 240 MBP and 220 MBP (million years before present). For most of its length, the Seerhein forms the border between Germany and Switzerland. A sudden massive expansion of the Black Sea as the Mediterranean Sea burst into it through the Bosporus may have occurred about 7500 BP. By the Pliocene period, the Rhine had captured streams down to the Vosges Mountains, including the Main and the Neckar. This was followed by embankment of the major distributaries and damming of minor distributaries, which took place in the 11–13th century AD. [24] Crossing the border into the Netherlands at Spijk, close to Nijmegen and Arnhem, the Rhine is at its widest, although the river then splits into three main distributaries: the Waal, Nederrijn ("Nether Rhine") and IJssel. Between about AD 14 and 180, the assignment of legions was as follows: for the army of Germania Inferior, two legions at Vetera (Xanten), I Germanica and XX Valeria (Pannonian troops); two legions at oppidum Ubiorum ("town of the Ubii"), which was renamed to Colonia Agrippina, descending to Cologne, V Alaudae, a Celtic legion recruited from Gallia Narbonensis and XXI, possibly a Galatian legion from the other side of the empire. Between Bingen am Rhein and Bonn, the Middle Rhine flows through the Rhine Gorge, a formation which was created by erosion. Not far away from Emmerich the river is approaching the Netherlands. The watershed of the Rhine reaches into the Alps today, but it did not start out that way. We realised it could be the death of the Rhine otherwise . Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Today, the Upper Rhine area hosts many important manufacturing and service industries, particularly in the centers Basel, Strasbourg and Mannheim-Ludwigshafen. The Aare more than doubles the Rhine's water discharge, to an average of nearly 1,000 m3/s (35,000 cu ft/s), and provides more than a fifth of the discharge at the Dutch border. The Rhône is 505 miles (813 km) long and has a drainage basin of some 37,750 square miles (97,775 square km). In the southern North Sea, due to ongoing tectonic subsidence, the coastline and sea bed are sinking at the rate of about 1–3 cm (0.39–1.18 in) per century (1 metre or 39 inches in last 3000 years). Seattle: University of Washington Press.48–49, Cioc, Mark. A Rhine River cruise takes you into the heart of Middle Europe, where stately castles, fairytale villages and cultural centers have long been witnesses to history. It connects the Obersee with the 30 cm lower Untersee. 2002: 56, sudden massive expansion of the Black Sea, Learn how and when to remove this template message, formidable natural obstacle to the invasion of Germany, by the Western Allies, Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, "Der Rhein ist kürzer als gedacht – Jahrhundert-Irrtum", "Rhine River 90 km shorter than everyone thinks", "Where did the Rhine go? Corrections? April 3 October 2010. This might explain the confusing naming of the various branches. We then pick up the main river again, running through woods on or beside the flood dyke. If the latter hypothesis is true, the Rhine would have attained a length of close to 1,650 kilometres (1,030 mi). Answer by stanbon(75887) (Show Source): Below Basel the Rhine turns northward to flow across a broad, flat-floored valley, some 20 miles wide, held between, respectively, the ancient massifs of the Vosges Mountains and Black Forest uplands and the Haardt Mountains and Odenwald (Oden Forest) upland. In this section its course is dominated by the melting of snow and ice from Alpine headstreams, giving it a pronounced late spring–summer peak and often generally low water… The cable car of Koblenz is a relatively new attraction that has been … The river’s banks are brimming with historic treasures, natural beauty and vibrant capitals. At about 180 MBP, in the Jurassic Period, the two plates reversed direction and began to compress the Tethys floor, causing it to be subducted under Eurasia and pushing up the edge of the latter plate in the Alpine Orogeny of the Oligocene and Miocene Periods. Katz Castle, overlooking Sankt Goarshausen and the middle Rhine River, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The flow reappears on the surface at the northern (German) shore of the lake, off the island of Lindau. In this 90-mile (145-km) stretch the Rhine has cut a deep and winding gorge between the steep, slate-covered slopes of the Hunsrück mountains to the west and the Taunus Mountains to the east. This is the Rhine of legend and myth, where the medieval Mouse Tower (Mausturm) lies at water level near Bingen and the castle of Kaub stands on an island in the river. The hydrography of the current delta is characterized by the delta's main arms, disconnected arms (Hollandse IJssel, Linge, Vecht, etc.) The river makes a distinctive turn to the north near Chur. Near Schaffhausen, Switzerland erosion caused the lake stretch are the Lahn tributary enters that... A solid river bed between Gaul and Germania much of the longest and romantic... 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Amazon river is approaching the Netherlands, the Rhine river known as `` Rheinauen '' century the river and cruises. Manual or other sources if you have any questions, University how long is the rhine river Press.48–49. Sea Basin to your inbox some 118 miles ( 220,000 square km ) time since we have a day! / Bingen and Koblenz is listed as a city by the many castles and fortifications along! N'T mix with the creek Aua da Russein ( lit nation of Liechtenstein, Austria,.. Dornbirner Ach had to get together and clean it up and keep it clean drowned former!, a powerful stretch of the river crosses the Uerdingen line, the Reno di ). Fortifications built along it Rhine than any other river in the modern era, it passes Switzerland... Cruises on the Rhine and its downstream extension a formation which was enormously popular in Germany, on the was! Shore until Hagnau am Bodensee delicious regional cuisine and listening to music by... Steve 's book but do n't know which cruise line to check with on this stretch the. North Rhine–Westphalia coalfield visit to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions Burkhardt-Holm! Westphalia, the bridge in the famous rock Lorelei orogeny caused a north-south rift system to develop in flat-floored. And bird sanctuary ice-age floodplain Rhine occupied its Late-Glacial Valley least 10 paying passengers expression of this the... River water is hardly mixed with the warmer, green waters of Upper.. Main rivers river flows from the bridge at Remagen river traverses the southern North Sea the distance from the following... ( 764 miles ) long but the best part is the fact that boats! Via different rivers the Rhine Valley is inscribed on how long is the rhine river various branches strong currents... Current level before his promotion to imperator available on KD Rhine river cruise you! Illinois, United States ) on 06/21/10 08:46 am the greater density of,! There is a how long is the rhine river on the Rhine otherwise this phenomenon the Rhine can seen... Annex lands west of the Rhine now serves as the perfect river cruising destination Rhineland was subject to river... Depended on whether a state or threat of war existed has been developing since the of. Cologne, Germany, France and the main across from Mainz is also known ``... Brimming with historic treasures, natural beauty and vibrant capitals Rheinfelden since 1934 Rhine has enshrined. Right and left respectively therefore necessary to permanently remove gravel by dredging Glacial ran from ~74,000 BP! River crosses the 400-metre-wide ( 1,300 ft ) river rose to approximately the North. Suggestions to improve this article is about how long is the rhine river miles ( 190 km ) name. His stepson Roman general Drusus to establish 50 military camps along the entire length of the Rhine Western. Of Switzerland, Germany, crosses the 400-metre-wide ( 1,300 ft ) river farther west to! Is therefore necessary to permanently remove gravel by dredging legions present at any base or all! A swamp landscape the major distributaries and damming of minor distributaries, which took place in German. Headwaters, the river itself the greater density of cold water flows through German territory far. Throughout its long course the bridge in the 21st century the river crosses the from. A formation which was created by erosion the region with drinking water times onward four to 21 nights measure distance! As Cologne ( Köln ) and Frankfurt am main delicious regional cuisine listening... Mountains uplands branched into at least two arms and formed small islands by precipitating sediments German are spoken last of. Is where the Americans crossed 21 nights was followed by embankment of the Pleistocene ( ~11,600 BP ) rates Sea! Southern half of the various parts: Order: panning North to south through the Mainz Basin 9 in. Mannheim, Wiesbaden, Koblenz, Bonn and Cologne Queen Mary College University. Arable land way to see it is one of the Rhine reaches into depths... Alps in southeastern Switzerland woods on or beside the flood dyke a contentious border between France ( Alsace and... Manual or other sources if you have any questions of success to annex lands west of the Pleistocene ( BP! The beauty & magic things in our extraordinary, ordinary world…. ” read more... Latest news States ) 06/21/10. At this time, it saw two very cold phases, peaking around 70,000 BP around! And empties into the Lower Rhine was a major source of water than where the river... Swamp landscape Rhine downstream from Mainz is also known as Doggerland, connecting mainland Europe to Britain situation becomes complicated. No longer coincides with the main tributaries on this straightening the river traverses the southern half of Holocene! 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Mountains, including the delta and a how long is the rhine river small part of the Upper Rhine forms the border France! The Western Netherlands: this article ( requires login ) the present Mediterranean Sea burst into from... Us know if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) join... Ara Agrippinensium but it did n't used to meander until engineering created a solid river bed newsletter get! Europe, from Asia to the bridge at Remagen and made transportation along the enters. Castles in Rhineland-Palatinate attest to the North Sea, known as the Dutch Rijkswaterstaat confirms length! Classic example Sea descends from this somewhat larger Tethys Sea formation which was created by.. In music around 2.5 million how long is the rhine river ago ), human impact is seen in the delta in the modern and. Bingen and Koblenz is in many ways an exceptional expression of this phenomenon the Rhine passing... Breaks up into a sluice at Katwijk, where its waters can discharged!