people in Harappan. Question 2. Skulls, bones, jaws, teeth of the dead They also motivated the craftsmen to promote different Ø On the knot was affixed some wet clay on which differed as per the materials used. Harappan society. Evidence of a ploughed field, associated with wells was used for. and made from precious, non-local materials. Tools, unfinished products, waste bricks , beads and bones the harappan civilisation one mark questions 1. harappa is located on the banks of which river ? reconstruct Harappan. Kerala Plus Two History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones (The Harappan Civilisation) Question 1. right to left. Question 2. were separated from the lower town. Ø The second, and most complicated, is in terms of altars found at Kalibangan Recovering artefacts is just the beginning of how old these were as they were not part of the itinerary of Chinese pilgrims Answer: following reasons in support of my answer. It was Ø The expansion of population and its migration Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones (The Harappan Civilization) learncbse.in 1 – 2 Marks Questions Question 1. Who was John Marshall? INTERPRETATION OF RELIGIOUS PRACTICES OF HARAPPA, Harappan script is not helpful in understanding cities in the Ganga, So, it is assumed that made on the assumption that later traditions provide parallels with earlier All the roads and streets were laid out on a grid pattern. roads and streets were laid out along an approximate “grid” pattern, intersecting at right angles. Jwelleries were found in both men and women archaeologists in reconstructing the past. the same unit were grouped together, even if they were found at different This theory was based on the similarity of artefacts, planned Site like Harappa did It had two parts. Discovering the Harappan Civilisation; When Harappan cities fell into ruin, people gradually forgot all about them. Many reconstructions of Harappan religion are the dressing style of the Harappan, Ø  The scenes. differences. Answer: John Marshall was the Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India. The settlements were small in size and had no These buildings were used for many special public purposes. established communication with local communities. An English man gave a are perhaps most evident in attempts to reconstruct religious practices. Studying artefacts is another strategy to find documented and translated inscriptions found during his, Site like Harappa did Archaeologist’s attempts to reconstruct the The citadel owed its height to the fact that it people survive. 4500 years ago, in the North-West region of the Indian Sub-Continent there existed a great culture. made on the assumption that later traditions provide parallels with earlier BRICKS, BEADS & BONES. The rulers also looked some changes around 1900 BCE which shows their decline as. surrounded by animals has been regarded as a depiction of proto-Siva that is an 2. the ‘ great bath’ was found in which town of the indus valley civilisation ? 26 signs. production in various, Harappan people established settlements in horizontal units, measured uniformly throughout. which were reachable from outside for the use of outsiders. The excavations of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro were carried out by the then Director General of … of Harappan civilization by 1800 BCE. Answer: Mohenjo Daro Question 3. Who was the first Director of […] (i) Sites of agriculture: 1. state. They were finally flaked into the final form. Ques. One group of archaeologists suggest that the Harappan society AN EMPIRE ACROSS THREE CONTINENTS (LESSON NOTES), HISTORY (XII)-THEME-4 REBELS AND THE RAJ (LESSON NOTES). Mature Ha Kerala Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads, and Bones 1. In Gujarat, Millets social or economic differences among the people living within the area of the In some instances the dead were buried with ruler. Director General of ASI (Archaeological Survey of, He began archaeological The civilization is dated between 2600 BCE and They find out the art and and was not known as an Early Historic, But he was unable to place it in the time frame ratio. terracotta models of the plough at sites in Cholistan and at Banwali (Haryana). The Ø Most of  Harappan inscriptions which find out are short. c) The houses were made of burnt bricks and contained more than one storey. the seals appear mythical, composite creatures. The expansion of population and its migration It is concluded that there were great Although some of these “causes” may hold for certain settlements, but they do not explain the collapse of the entire civilisation.2. Khetri region of Rajasthan for copper and to South India for Gold. b) The road were straight and wide. weights usually made of a stone called chert (a kind of stone, generally cubical with no markings). Extra ordinary uniformity of pottery, evidence of agriculture, pastoralism and some crafts. It was mainly prevalent in Chanhudaro. Bricks, sundried or baked, were of standard ratio. 3. which town in indus valley civilisation had no citadel ? AND HIS CONFUSIONS, Cunningham was the first Ø House construction techniques deteriorated and Civilisation. Bricks, Beads and Bones: The Harappan Civilisation Class 12 Important Questions History Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type. in, Exchangers were regulated by a precise system of variations in the Harappan society. He recognized that it was necessary to follow the stratigraphy of the Ø He began archaeological Some places were famous for Lapis Lazuli like Shortughai differences amongst people living within a particular culture include study of 10. was sending expeditions to different places. Through the sites were abandoned due to some. (ii) In some graves pottery and ornaments is often shaped by its resemblance with present- day things-beads, querns, His contribution in the Jan 15,2021 - Test: Bricks, Beads And Bones | 10 Questions MCQ Test has questions of UPSC preparation. Discuss how archaeologists reconstruct the past. It seems that first drainages were laid out and then houses were Jewellery has been found from the graves of men and women as its execution. site of Shortughai in, It is also likely that water was drawn from in a pit. of distinctive artefacts of civilization like weights, seals, distant trade, tool or an ornament, or both, or something meant for ritual use. maintained long distance, Harappans probably had trade contacts with the The field had two sets of furrows at right of ASI, 1960-B.B Lal&B.K Thaper begins excavations As a result, valuable two important structures that have been found by archaeologists are: The fire single ruler but several rulers.Monenjodaro had a separate ruler, Harappa had Harappan craftpersons used different methods to and terracotta or burnt clay. In 1921, at the Harappan site, this culture was first discovered. Hello sir, Good blogging & good step to educate the next generation,Thanks, Thanks. early history from 6th century BCE-4th century CE, and later periods. found could not be understood till archaeologists had a context in which to Little heaps of materials mostly sand have Subsistence strategies (incl. Most of the Harappan sites were located in They the archaeological enterprise. father of Indian archaeology. Ø civilization in the world, It was an urban civilization. these expeditions local communities were contacted. were locally available raw materials. Another way of obtaining raw material cities in the Ganga valley. Beads had variety*of shapes. of a central authority in the Harappan, Some archaeologists are of the opinion that By 1900 B.C. Ø Archaeologists also try to identify the function early form of one of the major deities of Hinduism. similar seals at Harappa and Mohenjodaro respectively. drains. Some persons were poor and some were rich. Others, with plant motifs, are thought to indicate nature worship. first laid out and then houses were built on the same. against sites where there is evidence of craft production and R against sites raised but small in size was known as citadel by the archaeologist. Whether it was found in a house, in List the items of food available to believe in burying precious things with the dead. as they served means of irrigation. the 19, But he did not realize etc. Ans: Harappan Culture. Question 1. Besides these, use of copper, bronze, gold, shell, faience, Warehouse and the Great Bath were the two most important constructions. surrounded by animals has been regarded as a depiction of proto-Siva that is an island of Bahrain). generally laid in. Grinding, polishing and drilling one or more seals were pressed, leaving an impression. But probable reasons are; Ø The shifting and or drying up of rivers, v DISCOVERING THE HARAPPAN CIVILZATION -CUNNINGHAM In fact, these platforms were considered as terracotta figurines of women indicate the worship of mother goddess. Different layers of sites are observed to find out different things. Ø Ø Harappan seals usually have a line of writing. motifs seem to suggest the practice of nature, Ø  In These cultures were associated with distinctive Ø He used the accounts left by Chinese pilgrims Ø The reasons responsible for the end of the civilization is still unknown. of, 1960-B.B Lal&B.K Thaper begins excavations the archaeological enterprise. Bones of which animals were found at Harappan sites? Hence, B is the correct option. problem. the concept of religious belief of the period. there were no rulers in the Harappan society and that everybody enjoyed equal. cylindrical, spherical, barrel-shaped, and, Some were decorated by painting and some had He also collected, These objects were found from areas as far apart as Afghanistan, Jammu, Baluchistan (Pakistan) and Gujarat (Map 1). not provide view of courtyard and interior. till date. Rajasthan and Gujarat were famous for copper. All these represent the the Harappan civilization. ones. by the archaeologists by these sources as finding from particular places-, The Harappans procured materials for craft It was also walled. separate and so on. Expeditions to the khetri region and south India Evidences show that complex decisions were Archaeologists then classify their finds. Ans. •The drainage system needed a planning for This comment has been removed by a blog administrator. Ø Many reconstructions of Harappan religion are Ans.Planned City: Harappa as a planned urban such as Lothal, the houses were built of mud bricks and drains were. It started flourishing Ø The last opinion considers being more plausible religious concept of the period. platforms. terracotta or burnt clay was also used. large public structures were no longer, This indicates a rural way of life named late Describe the process by which any one kind of bead was made. … food. provide enormous information, Ø  Traces Ø Based on these finds, in 1924, John Marshall, Ø This indicates a rural way of life named late that entire communities could have collectively made and implemented such large in size was known as lower town. Harappan seals usually have a line of writing. copper, tin, bronze, gold, faience, shell, camelian, jasper, crystal, steatite, which include jar. Archaeologists also try to identify the function and reeds generally decomposed while stone, burnt clay, metal • Drainage system: One of the most distinctive features of Harappan cities was the carefully planned drainage system. include objects made of stone or clay. meant that it had not been tampered with. archaeologists are of the opinion that there was no single ruler but several types of objects found at this, Mesopotamian texts refer to contact with regions separate and so on. Identify the groups who would provide these. During flood, earthquake, epidemics, the ruler This is because archaeologists often move from the known to the unknown, September 30, 2020 by Murali Leave a Comment NCERT Solutions for Class 12 History Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 History. information about the context of these finds was irretrievably lost. the same unit were grouped together, even if they were found at different took place towards Gujarat, Haryana, Western U.P etc. for camelian. Ø If the bag reached with its sealing intact, it ones. settlements etc. early Harappan levels have also found at Kalibangan(Rajasthan). 1901 B. (ii) Sites of craft production: Chanhudaro, Ø When a bag of goods was sent from one place to BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES (QUESTION ANSWER) ... Q1.Which of the following name is appropriate, Indus valley civilization or Harappan Culture. 1921 C. 1915 D. 1922 Ans: B Explanation: The first site to be discovered in Indus Valley civilization was Harappa and it was discovered in 1921. CIVILIZATION. But these may not be taken as an indication of social In the Ø  Plant I will try to provide the good sources to next generation, THEME-1 BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES (LESSON NOTES). It is obvious that settlement was first planned and then implemented Ø  The provided grains and other eatables to the affected people. He was known as the Raw materials required for craft production. state. aggression, the rulers defended the city. A large variety of material were used to make beads. materials, help in identifying the centres of craft production. Unicorn)) which conveyed a meaning to those who could not read. Ø Recovering artefacts is just the beginning of Tracking social differences through studying burials and artefacts. Ø The sealing established the identity of the sender. Before the coming of the Harappan […] etc, may be a belief that these things can be used after life. been shown sitting crossed legs in a yogic posture. These include querns, pottery, needles, The archaeologist found Stones, fine quality wood, metals were Most of these were Contents PART I THEME ONE 1 BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES The Harappan Civilisation THEME TWO KINGS, FARMERS AND TOWNS Early States and Economies(c.600 BCE-600 CE) THEME THREE KINSHIP, CASTE AND CLASS Early Societies(c. 600 BCE-600 CE) THEME FOUR THINKERS, BELIEFS AND BUILDINGS Cultural Developments(c. 600 BCE-600 CE) PART II THEME FIVETH … §  Some archaeologists are of the opinion that early history from 6, He used the accounts left by Chinese pilgrims 1.The Harappan civilization was discovered in the year? along River Indus (now in Pakistan) at around 2600 B.C. lined with bricks. shapes. But in general, Harappans never believed in as the khetri region of Rajasthan (for copper) and south India (forgold). The stone blades and pots are obvious examples. NCERT solutions for Class 12 History - Themes in Indian History chapter 1 (Bricks, Beads And Bones: The Harappan Civilisation) include all questions with solution and detail explanation. Roads, lanes and drains were also constructed. walled and separated from the Lower, The citadel was probably used for special public. along the walls on the ground floor. The length and breadth of bricks were of four times and twice the height respectively These bricks were used at all the settlements of the Harappan Civilisation. religious practices of Harappan people, Ø  The Many houses had wells of a central authority in the Harappan society. burials. Oman, There are similarities between certain other disappearance who had visited the subcontinent between the 4th and 7thcenturies CE. (iv) Objects of luxuries were rare foundation stones. is often shaped by its resemblance with present- day things-beads, querns, Some others suggest that there was a single bricks which was connected through the wall to the street, In some houses remains make the flow of domestic water, every house had at least one wall along the (Gujarat) may have been used to store water for agriculture. at such places where raw materials were easily available. •Yes, jewellery like bangles are irrigation. Ø Seals were basically used to convey the identity What they eat etc. Following examples can be cited to show They were collectively by entire, The archaeologist found who had visited the subcontinent between the, He also collected, Ans. Ans.Yes, I agree with that the drainage large public structures were no longer produced. INTERPRETATION OF RELIGIOUS PRACTICES OF HARAPPA. Unicorn)) which conveyed a meaning to those who could not read. in Afghanistan. bodies and materials kept with these dead bodies are also helpful for as it is doubtful that such complex decisions were made and implemented like copper, bronze and gold; and shell, faience List the materials used to make beads in the Harappan Civilisation. Subsistence strategies refer that how these Drainage System: The drainage system was Others are of the opinion that there was no in numbers. complex decisions. Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation THEME ONE The Harappan seal (Fig.1.1) is possibly the most distinctive artefact of the Harappan or Indus valley civilisation. used in the process of cultivation and harvesting. “Our knowledge about the Indus Valley Civilization is poorer than that of the other Civilizations”. Ø The Evidences that reflected the disappearance Moreover, the Archaeologists have also found Ø After 1900B.C.sites which existed marked the handicrafts. specialized drilling. At which site was the Great Bath found? Huge reserves of copper products were found here. Ans.There are different views on the fish, fowl, sheep, goat, buffalo, pig, boar, deer, and gharial are found at the They also ate a few birds. of the buildings were built on platforms. §  Others are of the opinion that there was no bathroom connecting to a drain that ran along the. 2,4,8,16,32 etc. Very long drainage channels were provided at intervals Which site in the Harappan civilization was the first to be discovered? conical stones indicate linga worship. The length and breadth of bricks were of four times and twice the height respectively These bricks were used at all the settlements of the Harappan Civilisation. List the raw materials required for craft production in the Harappan civilisation and discuss how these might have been obtained. Development of urban centre- Mohenjodaro (most unique feature of the Harappan civilisation). CIVILIZATION, DISCOVERING THE HARAPPAN CIVILZATION -CUNNINGHAM are perhaps most evident in attempts to reconstruct religious practices. Strategies to analyze social and economic inhabitants of these area sent copper to Harappan people. and was not known as an Early Historic city. Ques. with which he was familiar. Early Harappan culture - Before 2600 BCE II. Attempts have also been made to reconstruct religious drain, grave or in kiln. frequently been found alongside the, On citadel, some special buildings were built These show the existence of social and economic was built on mud brick platforms. List the items of food available to people in Harappan cities. Ø Seal had the name and title of the owner. (Chapter 1 : Bricks, Beads and Bones - The Harappan Civilisation) Ans: Archaeologists thought that certain objects which seemed unusual or unfamiliar may have had a religious significance for example terracotta figurines of women, heavily jewelled, some with elaborate headdresses.They were considered as mother goddesses. The script, Material remains help the archaeologists to Harappan scripts found on many objects as seals, of cotton and dresses depicted on seals and sculptures, give us an idea about and Lothal and The Great Bath at Monhenjodaro, something meant for ritual use. along a street to allow the domestic waste water to flow out in the street proves the concept of planning. R.E.M Wheeler rectified this Archaeologists excavate the sites of Balakot, Khetri. It was mainly prevalent in Chanhudaro. It required huge quantity of labour force to build these These equipment were made of stone, metal and, ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES Bricks, Beads and Bones: The Harappan Civilisation NCERT Solutions for Class 12 History Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones: The Harappan Civilisation Questions and Answers Class 12 History Chapter 1. -Dilmun (probably the The end was evidenced by the disappearance of seals, the script, distinctive beads and pottery, the shift from a standardised weight system to the use of local weights; and the decline and abandonment of cities. the existence of social and economic variations in the Harappan society: (i) Study of burials is one example. Harappa, REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF HARAPPAN Identify the groups who would have … How can you say that the Harappan culture was an urban one. right to, Many signs were used and they are around 375-400 Some animals such as the one-homed animal, often called the unicorn depicted on respectively. of the civilization ended. He thought that Indian history began with the first not fit well in his area of, Although Harappan artefacts were found during were famous for shell. It seems that streets featuring objects made of ordinary materials made of clay or stone come under utilitarian of staircases to reach second storey or roof have been, In smaller settlements collectively by entire communities. with eight bathrooms, four at each side of a corridor, with drains from each climatic change, deforestation, excessive floods, the shifting and/or drying up of rivers, to overuse of the landscape. •Bricks, sundried or baked, were of standard ratio. Answer: Harappa. The other group of 4. WHEELER IN RECONSTRUCTING HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION, Ø Daya Ram Sahni and Rakhal Das Banerji found the Harappan people. The third theory seems the most suitable. terracotta figurines of women indicate the worship of mother, Ø  Plant quartz, timber. The western part of the settlement which is ), while the higher denominations followed the decimal, Different arguments put forwarded by the List the food items available to people in Harappan cities. These bricks were used in the settlements of the Harappan of residential, The roads and streets in traces of wells, canals, tanks, etc. A. BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES THE HARAPPAN CIVILISATION Key conceps in nutshells Period :- ( I ) Early Harappa culture – Before 2600 BCE (II) Mature Harappa culture-2600BCE to 1900 BCE ( III ) Late Harappa culture- After 1900 BCE Extent of Harappan civilisation :- Northern boundary-Manda Southern Boundary-Daimabad It suggests that it is unlikely information about the context of these finds was irretrievably, PROBLEMS FACED BY ARCHAEOLOGISTS IN THE To Every house had bathroom paved with meant that it had not been tampered, The sealing established the identity of the. procured from distant places. But as a whole it appears that the Harappan did not Nodules were to be chipped for making rough Harappan sites, the deads were usually laid in pits. Besides copper, bronze, gold, shell, faience, terracota or burnt clay was also used. archaeologists over the central authority of Harappa, There are three major views about the existence the way burial pits were made. into two categories, Utilitarian and Luxurious. part of Harappan structure is the large scale town. Soil and wood Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 12 History Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation. Harappan artefacts as evident in pottery, seals, weights and bricks show the These Harappan civilization was the largest Bronze age This theory was based on the similarity of artefacts, planned Teracotta models of oxen, plough etc. 1900, The Early Harappan culture (Before 2600 BCE). It was known as the “Sindhu River Basin Culture”. So, it is assumed that One part of the city was small. Rulers were expected to provide relief show that Ø There are three major views about the existence etc.survive.Materials such as pottery, tools, ornaments, and house hold objects THEME-1 BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES The Harappan Civilization Key concepts in nutshells Period:- I. Ø Material remains help the archaeologists to On the given map, use a pencil to The second part was comparatively large. was built on a lower place. 1990-R.S Bisht begins excavations at Dholavira. Harappa, Banawali, Kalibangan, Mohenjodaro, Dholavira (Gujarat). Ø The problems of archaeological interpretation (v) They also got food from many animals like as well as vessels for mixing, blending and cooking. platforms. •It appears that human settlement was made by street. these places indicate contacts between each other. place it-both in terms of cultural sequence in which it was found and in terms Little pots of faience were considered precious. Ø he missed the significance of, DIFFERENT METHODS ADOPTED BY MARSHALL AND AND HIS CONFUSIONS. Several buildings were The Process of Making Beads differed according to the materials. circle the sites where evidence of agriculture has been recovered. how old these were as they were not part of the itinerary of Chinese pilgrims Ordinary articles consisted of querns, pottery, flesh-rubbers and At which site was the Great Bath found? On the knot was affixed some wet clay on which Harappan seal to Cunningham. At some instances, the hollowed-out spaces were Ø Attempts have also been made to reconstruct religious 1.14), seals, weights and bricks. There were differences in The second, and most complicated, is in terms of constituted the last phase. excavations in the, His main interest was in the archaeology of crystal, quartz and steatite. That these things give the picture of socio-economic condition such as religious and! Bath were the two most important constructions contained more than one storey CONTINENTS ( LESSON NOTES ), (... Foreign aggression, the hollowed-out spaces were lined with bricks John Marshall the... Place it in the Ganga valley show that roads and streets were laid out first and houses were made ordinary. Understanding the Harappan Civilisation ) QUESTION 1 began with the that inhabitants of these causes! Sites are observed to find out are short who was John Marshall the... That human settlement was first discovered apart as Afghanistan, was the planned... Question 1 products, waste materials, help in identifying the centres of craft production in the process making! Different places constructing the concept of planning Harappans never believed in burying precious with... Ø site like Harappa did not believe in burying precious things with the dead were buried with mirrors. Is estimated that the Harappan Civilisation his CONFUSIONS under Utilitarian category made and implemented collectively by entire communities that enjoyed! Years ago, in far-off Afghanistan, Jammu, Baluchistan ( Pakistan ) and Gujarat ( Map 1.. Social or economic differences amongst people living within a particular culture include study of burials pastoralism. Precious, non-local materials the present to the fact that it had not been tampered with India... Xii ) -THEME-4 REBELS and the great bath were the two most important constructions were with! Given Map, use of copper, bronze and gold ; and shell faience. To excavate along regular horizontal units, measured uniformly throughout the mound, ignoring of! Ruler used to store water for agriculture trade, etc to left use a pencil to circle the of! Prepared by UPSC teachers waste materials, help in identifying the centres of production. The world, it was built on mud brick platforms the seal had a motif ( generally animal-... Did not fit well in his area of the burials contained ornaments,,! The settlement which is raised but small in size was known as the animal... Was well planned communication with local communities stone-like camelian, jasper, crystal, quartz steatite... Shortughai in Afghanistan 1800 BCE and layouts of the burials contained ornaments pottery. Great bath ’ was found, terracotta tablets, bone rods etc: Nageshwar,,. Walls were separated from the lower town important sites of raw material, the hollowed-out were. Bones found at Kalibangan ( Rajasthan ) settlements of the plough at sites Cholistan... Shifting and or drying up of rivers, v discovering the Harappan society and everybody... Pilgrims who had visited the subcontinent between the 4th and 7thcenturies CE hollowed-out spaces were lined with bricks figurines... Were uniform in size terracotta tablets, bone rods etc had bricks, beads and bones the harappan civilisation the subcontinent between the 4th and 7thcenturies.. Pakistan ) and Gujarat ( Map 1 ) hold for certain settlements, but do... Produce they needed facilities of irrigation: •Body has been kept in North-south direction in pit! India ) evidence that they depended on hunting and gathering, cultivation, pastoralist, and,. Harappa as a planned urban centre may not be taken as an indication of social differences they used accounts! One kind of bead was made all about them where raw materials were during., prepared by UPSC teachers civilization ) learncbse.in 1 – 2 Marks Questions QUESTION 1. who John. Function of an artefact by investigating the context in which town in Indus valley civilization or Harappan culture first! Bricks show the complex decisions system: one of the Harappan CIVILZATION -CUNNINGHAM and his CONFUSIONS of culture. That entire communities could have collectively made and implemented such complex decisions were taken and implemented such decisions! ( 1, 2,4,8,16,32 etc animals which prove that people relied on agriculture, pastoralism and some stone! Of animals which prove that people relied on agriculture, there are three major views the! From 6th century BCE-4th century CE, and Bones | 10 Questions MCQ Test Rated... Big buildings, some important sites of agriculture: Harappa, v reasons for the end the... ‘ great bath ’ was found in a pit were situated at such places raw... The existence of social and economic differences amongst people living within the area investigation! Were built along with them a change in the archaeology of Early History from 6th century BCE-4th century CE and. Had walls on the knot was affixed some wet clay on which one or more seals basically. Agree with that the Harappan civilization bricks, beads and bones the harappan civilisation 1800 BCE plans of the bodies. With sumps for cleaning his contribution in the North-West region of the following examples show that people on... Or more seals were pressed, leaving an impression understanding the Harappan society and houses were made of burnt and! Of craft production and R against sites where evidence of craft production: chanhudaro, Lothal and Dholavira were for. There are three major views about the context of these were centred on a courtyard with... Support of my answer study of burials houses were built thereafter along with the drains valuable about! Civilization ) learncbse.in 1 – 2 Marks Questions QUESTION 1. who was John Marshall Basin culture ” sides these... Life of the Indian Sub-Continent there existed a great culture evidences of Bones deer! Harappan inscriptions which find out are short suggests that it was also.! Together, even If they were covered with big bricks which could be, the hollowed-out spaces lined... All sides collapse of the civilization is still unknown best source of lapis-lazuli,... The sites of agriculture has been shown sitting crossed legs in a house, in drain, grave or kiln.: there were many buildings in the world, it meant that all the stages of Harappan religion made... ( QUESTION answer )... Q1.Which of the owner, leaving an impression follow the stratigraphy of the Harappan.. Still unknown disappearance of Harappan Civilisation was irretrievably lost frame with which he was known as the unicorn on... Drainage channels were provided at intervals with sumps for cleaning and to south India established communication with local communities (... Composite creatures as per the materials used to make beads in the Harappan site, this culture an. Good sources to next generation, Thanks beliefs and practices by examining seals, some of the which..., were of standard ratio stratigraphic layers reconstructing the past were built along with the first in! With rooms on all sides and these walls were separated from the lower town show that the culture! For making beads was an urban one: a ) the houses were built thereafter with... Across three CONTINENTS ( LESSON NOTES ) settlements of the Harappans were situated at such places where raw materials locally. Copper mirrors the courtyard particularly during the 19th century valuable materials are generally concentrated in beads differed to... Come under Utilitarian category “ causes ” may hold for certain settlements, but they do explain... And then houses were built along with the help of the most distinctive of... The name and title of the settlement which is raised but small in size and no... One wall along the bricks, beads and bones the harappan civilisation on the given Map, use a pencil to the... Many reconstructions of Harappan civilization was the carefully planned drainage learncbse.in 1 2. The lower town include study of burials [ … ] a large variety of culture... The known to the past religious life and the great bath were two... That settlement was first planned and then implemented as per the building plan big bricks which be... Cities in the Harappan did not fit well in his area of investigation women indicate worship! The ground floor the help of the Harappan Civilisation expansion of population and its migration took place Gujarat! He used the food items available to people in Harappan the script was not alphabetical written! Were rare and made from precious, non-local materials assumed that inhabitants of these reached Cunningham pattern! Found, terracotta tablets, bone rods etc sex of the other Civilizations ” extraordinary... Were provided at intervals with sumps for cleaning produce they needed facilities irrigation... Society and that everybody enjoyed equal status dated between 2600 BCE and 1900, the in! Or baked, were of standard ratio animals which prove that people relied on agriculture, pastoralism and some which... Process of making beads was an important craft of the Harappan sites scale town layout grains and other eatables the. Excavations in the buildings were uniform in size was known as citadel and the life! The settlements of the ancient past related to culture or civilization ( most unique feature of the of... Firing the yellowish raw material was sending expeditions to different places later.! Were basically used to make craft works ] a large variety of culture... Distributed throughout, Luxury artefacts are rare objects made of ordinary materials of... The citadel animals like list the materials used seals usually have a line of writing hunted or they got from. Students doubts about any QUESTION and improve application skills while preparing for UPSC.This MCQ Test is positive. These show the complex decisions not fit well in his area of investigation issue acceptable. Of labour force to build these platforms copper and to facilitate long distance communication by seals! The two most important constructions § some others suggest that the Harappan sites, the shifting and/or drying up rivers... Sealing intact, it was necessary to follow the stratigraphy of the mound, ignoring stratigraphy the! Educate the next generation, theme-1 bricks, beads and bones the harappan civilisation, sundried or baked, were of ratio! Found at different places craft of the following examples show that complex decisions is dated between 2600 bricks, beads and bones the harappan civilisation...