In 1636, Williams founded the colony of Rhode Island, and Hutchinson joined him there several years later. [130] Government contracts, private investment, and research facilities led to a new and improved industrial climate, with reduced unemployment and increased per capita income. Two pressure cooker bombs exploded near the finish line of the Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013, at around 2:49 pm EDT. Civil War veteran Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. served as a U.S. Supreme Court Justice from 1902 to 1931. An … It is located in the New England region of the northeastern United States and has an area of 10,555 square miles (27,340 km2), 25.7% of which is water. [141], The primary biome of inland Massachusetts is temperate deciduous forest. [308] Each branch consists of several committees. 2. [334] The fourteen counties, moving roughly from west to east, are Berkshire, Franklin, Hampshire, Hampden, Worcester, Middlesex, Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Bristol, Plymouth, Barnstable, Dukes, and Nantucket. [250] In 2007, Governor Deval Patrick signed into law a state holiday, Nonprofit Awareness Day. The Supreme Judicial Court rejected a challenge brought on behalf of a group including salon owners, pastors and the headmaster of a private school, who accused the Republican governor of exercising “legislative police power” by declaring a state of emergency under the state’s Civil Defense Act. [192] In the early 20th century, a number of[vague] African Americans migrated to Massachusetts, although in somewhat fewer numbers than many other Northern states. Ticks can transmit the disease once temperatures reach 45 degrees, so shorter winters will increase the window of transmission. Although much of Massachusetts had been cleared for agriculture, leaving only traces of old-growth forest in isolated pockets, secondary growth has regenerated in many rural areas as farms have been abandoned. The climate of Boston is quite representative for the commonwealth, characterized by summer highs of around 81 °F (27 °C) and winter highs of 35 °F (2 °C), and is quite wet. Mass Save has been formed in conjunction with the State by Berkshire Gas, Blackstone Gas Company, Cape Light Compact, Eversource, Liberty Utilities, National Grid and Unitil to provide homeowners and renters with incentives to retrofit their homes with efficient HVAC equipment and other household appliances. [296] Interstate 90 (I-90, also known as the Massachusetts Turnpike), is the longest interstate in Massachusetts. [53] In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty"[54] for the agitation there that later led to the American Revolution. November 2, 1853 . Massachusetts is the 7th-smallest state in the United States. [129] In Eastern Massachusetts, following World War II, the economy was transformed from one based on heavy industry into a service-based economy. [225] Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, both located in Cambridge, consistently rank among the world's best private universities and universities in general. Boston's South Station serves as the terminus for three lines, namely the high-speed Acela Express, which links to cities such as Providence, New Haven, New York City, and eventually Washington DC; the Northeast Regional, which follows the same route but includes many more stops, and also continues further south to Newport News in Virginia; and the Lake Shore Limited, which runs westward to Worcester, Springfield, and eventually Chicago. This was the first time that the Supreme Court reversed a state criminal conviction due to a violation of a constitutional provision … He taught law at Harvard, sat on the Massachusetts Supreme Court for twenty years and served for thirty years on the United States Supreme Court, where he helped President Franklin D. Roosevelt select his own successor. [289][290], Boston Logan International Airport served 33.5 million passengers in 2015 (up from 31.6 million in 2014)[239] through 103 gates. Routes 1, 3, 6, and 20, and state routes 2, 3, 9, 24, and 128. Amtrak carries more passengers between Boston and New York than all airlines combined (about 54% of market share in 2012),[277] but service between other cities is less frequent. [145] There are currently 219 endangered species in Massachusetts. In February 2017, U.S. News & World Report ranked Massachusetts the best state in the United States based upon 60 metrics including healthcare, education, crime, infrastructure, opportunity, economy, and government. Massachusetts was the first state to recruit, train, and arm a Black regiment with White officers, the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment. It is the most irreligious region of the country, along with the Western United States. During the home assessment, Mass Save provides ENERGY STAR certified LED light bulbs, power strips, low flow showerheads, faucet aerators, and efficient thermostats free of charge. [167] Once installed, arrays are eligible for net metering. [173], In late 2020, the Baker Administration released a Decarbonization Roadmap that aims for net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Seuss". [313], Federal court cases are heard in the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts, and appeals are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit. [165], Mass Save also conducts no-cost in-home energy assessments so that homeowners, renters, and small business owners may educate themselves about energy efficiency-related home improvements and find opportunities to save money and energy. [329] In 2008, Massachusetts voters passed an initiative decriminalizing possession of small amounts of marijuana. [241] Other popular tourist destinations include Salem, Plymouth, and the Berkshires. By the 1920s, competition from the South and Midwest, followed by the Great Depression, led to the collapse of the three main industries in Massachusetts: textiles, shoemaking, and precision mechanics. Children of businessman and ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. included John F. Kennedy, who was a senator and U.S. president before his assassination in 1963, Robert F. Kennedy, who was a senator, U.S. attorney general, and presidential candidate before his assassination in 1968, Ted Kennedy, a senator from 1962 until his death in 2009,[134] and Eunice Kennedy Shriver, a co-founder of the Special Olympics. [66] Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance. [132] It connected areas that were once divided by elevated highway (much of the raised old Central Artery was replaced with the Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy Greenway), and improved traffic conditions along with several routes.[132][133]. [119] Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson made major contributions to American philosophy. Court Orders Tiger King’s Jeff Lowe to Hand over Big Cat Cubs and Their Mothers . Additionally, rising temperatures will increase the number of reported Lyme disease cases in the state. [148] White-tailed deer, raccoons, wild turkeys, and eastern gray squirrels are also found throughout Massachusetts. [333], There are 50 cities and 301 towns in Massachusetts, grouped into 14 counties. If at least 50 percent of the residents of the building qualify as low income, energy efficiency improvements like those available through Mass Save are available. [58][59] In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U.S. state to legally recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court's decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health. [126] This decline would continue into the latter half of the century; between 1950 and 1979, the number of Massachusetts residents involved in textile manufacturing declined from 264,000 to 63,000. Scott believes that the federal … As the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts has explained, because “it fulfils yearnings for security, safe haven, and connection that express our common human- ity, civil marriage is an esteemed institution, and the decision whether and whom to marry is among life’s mo-mentous acts of self-definition.” Goodridge, 440 Mass., at Nearly 800 vessels were commissioned as privateers and are credited with capturing or destroying about 600 British ships.[107]. [262] In 2018, renewable energy was about 7.2 percent of total energy consumed in the state, ranking 34th. [179], As of 2014, in terms of race and ethnicity, Massachusetts was 83.2% White (73.7% Non-Hispanic White), 8.8% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American and Alaska Native, 6.3% Asian American, <0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 2.1% from some other race, and 3.1% from two or more races. Jews currently make up 3% of the population. Massachusetts is also home to three of the top five U.S. News and World Report's best Liberal Arts Colleges: Williams College (#1), Amherst College (#2), and Wellesley College (#4). The same company also operates seasonal service between Boston and Provincetown. In a ruling related to the COVID-19 pandemic, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled late Tuesday that pregnant women must make an in-person visit with a doctor before obtaining a chemical abortion pill.

Peregrine falcons utilize office towers in larger cities as nesting areas,[147] and the population of coyotes, whose diet may include garbage and roadkill, has been increasing in recent decades. [57] In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. From 1786 to 1787, an armed uprising, known as Shays' Rebellion led by Revolutionary War veteran Daniel Shays wrought havoc throughout Massachusetts and ultimately attempted to seize the Federal armory. Massachusetts has a long political history; earlier political structures included the Mayflower Compact of 1620, the separate Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies, and the combined colonial Province of Massachusetts. [231] As of January 2020, Massachusetts state general minimum wage is $13.50 per hour while the minimum wage for tipped workers is $5.55 an hour. In addition to the Federal Residential Renewable energy credit, Massachusetts residents may be eligible for a tax credit of up to 15 percent of the project. [411], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}42°15′35″N 71°48′30″W / 42.2596°N 71.8083°W / 42.2596; -71.8083 (Commonwealth of Massachusetts), This article is about the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. [302] In 1974, Elaine Noble became the first openly lesbian or gay candidate elected to a state legislature in US history. A number of cases were tried before the Supreme Court of the United States during the period of the American Civil War. [137] Other notable Bay State politicians on the national level included John W. McCormack, Speaker of the House in the 1960s, and Tip O'Neill, whose service as Speaker of the House from 1977 to 1987 was the longest continuous tenure in United States history. The court ruled that he was free and the Commonwealth brought suit for wrongful imprisonment of Walker by Jennison. Canals and railroads were used for transporting raw materials and finished goods. [170], As a part of the Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources’ effort to incentivize the usage of renewable energy, the MOR-EV, or Massachusetts Offers Rebates for Electric Vehicles initiative was created. Religious intolerance continued. [97] Protests against British attempts to tax the colonies after the French and Indian War ended in 1763 led to the Boston Massacre in 1770, and the 1773 Boston Tea Party escalated tensions. The corporate income tax rate is 8.8%,[257] and the short-term capital gains tax rate is 12%. [330] Voters in Massachusetts also approved a ballot measure in 2012 that legalized the medical use of marijuana. [409][410], Massachusetts has produced several successful Olympians including Butch Johnson, Nancy Kerrigan, Todd Richards, Albina Osipowich, Aly Raisman, and Susan Rojcewicz. Additionally, air leaks will be detected in the home or building and patched, and recommendations will be made to install additional insulation to decrease the loss of heated or cooled air. [93] This established Massachusetts's southern border in the west,[94] though surveying problems resulted in disputed territory until 1803–04. Opposition to continued construction grew, and in 1970 Governor Francis W. Sargent issued a general prohibition on most further freeway construction within the I-95/Route 128 loop in the Boston area. [408] A number of major golf events have taken place in Massachusetts, including nine U.S. After the Civil War, this decision was voided by the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution. [127] The 1969 closure of the Springfield Armory, in particular, spurred an exodus of high-paying jobs from Western Massachusetts, which suffered greatly as it de-industrialized during the last 40 years of the 20th century. [398] The Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences has two of its three campuses in Boston and Worcester.[399]. The shifting climate in Massachusetts will result in a significant change to the built environment and ecosystems. [310] The executive branch also includes the Executive Council, which is made up of eight elected councilors and the Lieutenant Governor seat,[308] currently occupied by Karyn Polito, a Republican from Shrewsbury). ", "1980 Presidential General Election Results—Massachusetts", Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections, "1984 Presidential General Election Results—Massachusetts", "Massachusetts Registered Voter Enrollment: 1948-2018", "Members of the House of Representatives", "Mass. [258] An unusual provision allows filers to voluntarily pay at the pre-referendum 5.85% income tax rate, which is done by between one and two thousand taxpayers per year. Climate change in Massachusetts will affect both urban and rural environments, including forestry, fisheries, agriculture, and coastal development. Among those who objected to this later in the century were the English Quaker preachers Alice and Thomas Curwen, who were publicly flogged and imprisoned in Boston in 1676. [60] Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. David McCullough points out that an equally important feature was its placing for the first time the courts as a co-equal branch separate from the executive. Additionally, Massachusetts provided Reagan with his smallest margins of victory in both the 1980[319] and 1984 elections. [162] These increased precipitation patterns are focused in the winter and spring. [184], By sex, 48.4% were male, and 51.6% were female in 2014. Despite its small size, Massachusetts features numerous topographically distinctive regions. [338] Most of the county governments were abolished by the state of Massachusetts beginning in 1997 including Middlesex County,[339] the largest county in the state by population. [353][354] Tanglewood, in western Massachusetts, is a music venue that is home to both the Tanglewood Music Festival and Tanglewood Jazz Festival, as well as the summer host for the Boston Symphony Orchestra. [292] Massachusetts has 39 public-use airfields[293] and more than 200 private landing spots. [182] Population growth was largely due to a relatively high quality of life and a large higher education system in the state. Suburbanization flourished, and by the 1970s, the Route 128 corridor was dotted with high-technology companies who recruited graduates of the area's many elite institutions of higher education. [373], Massachusetts is one of the states with the largest percentage of Catholics. On May 17, 2004, Massachusetts became the first state in the U.S. to legalize same-sex marriage after a Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruling in November 2003 determined that the exclusion of same-sex couples from the right to a civil marriage was unconstitutional. Strauder v. West Virginia , 100 U.S. 303 (1880) The exclusion of individuals from juries solely because of their race is a violation of the Equal Protection Clause. Some major museums and important historical sites are also located there, and events and festivals throughout the year celebrate the state's history and heritage. [47] Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.[48]. [388] 37.2% of the population is overweight and 21.7% is obese,[389] and Massachusetts ranks sixth-highest in the percentage of residents who are considered neither obese nor overweight (41.1%). In 2015, the United Health Foundation ranked the state as third-healthiest overall. Claim: The 1866 "Ex parte Milligan" precludes states from enforcing regulations that prevent residents from freely traveling or earning a living. [64][65] Both Harvard and MIT, also in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world. The licensed sale of recreational marijuana became legal on July 1, 2018; however, the lack of state-approved testing facilities prevented the sale of any product for several weeks. [52] The rebellion was one of the major factors in the decision to draft a stronger national constitution to replace the Articles of Confederation. The case before the court focuses on a Civil War-era law meant to stop contractors from selling the Union Army faulty guns, shoddy uniforms, and rancid food. In a landmark 1857 decision that inflamed abolitionists, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that African Americans were not entitled to U.S. citizenship. [142] He asked that a writ of Quo warranto (a legal action requiring the defendant to show what authority they have for exercising some right, power, or franchise they claim to hold) be issued against Massachusetts for the violations. [133][failed verification] Often controversial, with numerous claims of graft and mismanagement, and with its initial price tag of $2.5 billion increasing to a final tally of over $15 billion, the Big Dig nonetheless changed the face of Downtown Boston. [132] The project included making the Central Artery a tunnel under downtown Boston, in addition to the re-routing of several other major highways. [60] In 2006, Massachusetts became the first state to approve a law that provided for nearly universal healthcare. The explosions killed three people and injured an estimated 264 others. Transportation is the single largest source of greenhouse gas emissions by economic sector in Massachusetts.[267]. The trail court awarded Barron damages of $4,500, but the appellate court reversed the ruling. 86 ] a significant population of long-tailed ducks winter off Nantucket, at 2:49. Bay state ranked number one in education, number two in healthcare, and state routes 2,,. 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