This past week South Africa’s former defence minister Siphiwe Nyanda issued former President Jacob Zuma with a defamation lawsuit for calling him an apartheid spy. Policemen and women were eligible for a number of awards. During the time of the S.A. border war all Policemen were required to complete a 6-week intensive counter insurgence (C.O.I.N.) [2]:Chp2[4] The Commission to Inquire into Certain Intelligence Aspects of State Security, known better as the Potgieter Commission would investigate the clashes between the two organisations over who had primary responsibility for intelligence gathering in South Africa. In 1960, it became the official security branch. [3]:436 Attached to the Prime Minister office, he would be in command of all security and intelligence chiefs in the country including the military, and reported only to Vorster. South African police have made important strides to achieving democratic policing and the South African people have acknowledged such progress through their acceptance of the new South African Police Service. We based our discussion on Feld’s (2010) article American Jews and the Struggle Over Apartheid. Members of the South Africa's Mine Workers Union sing the old apartheid-era national anthem while demonstrating against affirmative action at a march in downtown Johannesburg Friday, Oct. 20, 1995. Naude has has been on the witness stand for two days, testifying at … Jacob Zuma. [3]:439 This caused outrage throughout the South African legal community as it could no longer protect citizens rights from the Executive. Apartheid-era death-squad leader Eugene de Kock, dubbed “Prime Evil” for his role in the torture and murder of black South African activists in the 1980s and early 1990s, was granted parole on Friday after 20 years in prison. The police also increased recruitment among black youth and hired international police training experts to advise them on ways to improve race relations in the service. People “fell” from high buildings while in the Police’s care. Potgieter's Commission of Inquiry on State Security is submitted to", This Day in History - The South African Bureau Of State Security (BOSS) established, Crimes and Mysteries of South Africa - The Information Scandal, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bureau_of_State_Security&oldid=980538806, Defunct organisations based in South Africa, Defunct South African intelligence agencies, Defunct law enforcement agencies of South Africa, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles containing Afrikaans-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, National Evaluation, Research and Special Studies, This page was last edited on 27 September 2020, at 02:49. Botha appointed Niel Barnard in November 1979 to form a new intelligence service. Police took direct action, including opening fire on demonstrators. "When I was 16 I was incarcerated for allegedly having sexual relations with a white girl during a time when it was forbidden in South Africa. SOUTH AFRICA'S GUILTY SECRET ... As he lay dying in the gutter the police looked on, ... During the apartheid era the gangs were used in various ways … Police reports from the time of the massacre claimed that panicking officers spontaneously fired into an increasingly violent crowd; however, other sources claim that the demonstration was peaceful in the moment leading up to the shooting. From 1923, the SAP also had its own long service medal, which doubled as a medal for gallantry. Thereafter, in 1963, the Republican intelligence was born from where BOSS was created on May 1st 1969. Their basic training lasted 6 months. [1], During the middle of 1968, the South African cabinet approved the implementation of a centralised security service and on 28 August of the same year, General Hendrik van den Bergh was instructed to start planning the new organisation. Although the mission of the SAP grew well beyond conventional policing responsibilities during the 1970s, the size of the police force declined relative to population. Abstract PIP: Male dominated power systems in South Africa coupled with a culture of aggression and domination have not allowed for the mainstream emergence of qualities such as trust, compassion, and gentleness, frequently associated with female virtues. [2]:Chp4, "Prime Minister John Vorster appoints a Commission of Inquiry under Justice H.J. 2. During the 1970s and 1980s, the ANC leadership in exile under Oliver Tambo targeted apartheid government leadership, command and control, secret police, and military-industrial complex assets and personnel in decapitation strikes, targeted killings, and guerrilla actions such as bomb explosions in facilities frequented by military and government personnel. The South African Police (SAP) was the national police force and law enforcement agency in South Africa from 1913 to 1994; it was the de facto police force in the territory of South West Africa (Namibia) from 1939 to 1981. This followed another senior African National Congress (ANC) member and former minister Derek Hanekom also filing a defamation lawsuit against Zuma for calling him “a known enemy agent” on Twitter. Botha to prime minister, the SADF's power increased in cabinet, along with that the Directorate Military Intelligence (DMI), who would strive to dominate security issues in the new government and decide its policy and implementation. [2]:Chp4 Believing that the outcome of both inquiries were already predetermined, BOSS officials began to shred any document that could be used against them. Specialized courses include crowd and riot control, detective skills, horsemanship and veterinary training, and advanced-level management skills. Evidence given to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in 1998 suggested "a degree of deliberation in the decision to open fire" by the police. Since 1990, South Africa also has provided training for police from Lesotho, Swaziland, Malawi and the (then) Zaire. [2]:Chp4 It was believed that it was predetermined that the DMI would be the lead intelligence agency. In 1987, for example, the police recruited almost 9,000 kitskonstabels and gave them an intensive six-week training course. Opposition to apartheid manifested in a variety of ways, including boycotts, non-violent protests, and armed resistance. The key players in this alleged scheme were former agents of the Rhodesian secret police, ... had been working simultaneously for South Africa. Today there is only one Police College to train new recruits in Pretoria. It functioned as a paramilitary hit squad,[12] capturing political opponents of the National Party government and either "turning" or executing them. He increased the recruitment of black police personnel, formed a civilian riot-control unit that was separate from the SAP but worked with it, developed a code of police conduct agreed upon by a number of political parties and communities, and substantially increased police training facilities. [15] During the late 1980s, the Hammanskraal college saw a large enrollment of black policemen.[16]. After the war, the South African Police joined INTERPOL on 1 January 1948.[4][5]. There were a number of special units within the police. [8] With the rise of P.W. South African riot police during Apartheid in the 1980’s. Beyond the conventional police functions of upholding order and solving crime, the SAP employed counter-insurgency and intimidation tactics against anti-apartheid activists and critics of the white minority government. 1. Peter Hain, a South African exile, became the public face of the movement, leading a successful effort to get the South African cricket and rugby teams banned from Britain. Botha was looking for an alternative to the policing function of BOSS as well as an alternative to a military view of intelligence, one which would provide long-term strategic intelligence to the government about the southern African region and world. The Bureau's job was to monitor national security. C1 was also responsible for several fatal bomb attacks against anti-apartheid activists, including members of the African National Congress. F or a child growing up in Soweto, South Africa, in 1976, apartheid was an abstract concept. Introduction Post apartheid South Africa is emerging as a new country from years of rule based solely on the color of one’s skin. The Bureau was involved in the Information Scandal or Muldergate Scandal, in which South African Government funds were used to establish a pro-National Party English language newspaper, The Citizen. As part of the overall reorganisation of the police, the government merged the formerly dreaded Criminal Investigation Department (CID) and the police security branch to form a Crime Combatting and Investigation (CCI) Division. ISBN 978-1-4082-4564-4 (pbk.) A black girl born to white parents during Apartheid South Africa was a national sensation. South African police beat black women with clubs after anti-apartheid protesters raided and set a beer hall on fire in Durban, South Africa in 1959. South African police officers hold protesters back during the funeral procession for Nathaniel Julies—who was shot by police—in Eldorado Park, near Johannesburg, on Sept. 5. Tricks of the trade included rape, torture and killings. Because Kagiso, the township of Krugersdorp, was a small community during the 1970s, the security officers also knew the families of the “troublemakers” and threatened them with arrests and detentions. The apartheid regime in South Africa began in 1948 and lasted until 1994. This past week South Africa’s former defence minister Siphiwe Nyanda issued former President Jacob Zuma with a defamation lawsuit for calling him an apartheid spy. [11], In 1983, the SAP formed C1, a counter-insurgency unit commanded by police colonel and former Koevoet operator Eugene de Kock. I argue that what has changed most since the end of apartheid is the relationship between policing and political order. 1 review Winter blows the whistle on his career as a journalist working for the South African intelligence forces during the Apartheid years. JOHANNESBURG -- South Africa has opened an inquest into the death of an anti-apartheid activist in police custody nearly four decades ago as pressure for justice in … Introduction Post apartheid South Africa is emerging as a new country from years of rule based solely on the color of one’s skin. This followed another senior African National Congress (ANC) member and former minister Derek Hanekom also filing a defamation lawsuit against Zuma for calling him “a known enemy agent” on Twitter. [6]:162 The now newly named National Intelligence Service was announced on the 6 February 1980. Peter Hain, a South African exile, became the public face of the movement, leading a successful effort to get the South African cricket and rugby teams banned from Britain. Kasrils and others in the ANC operated more clandestinely, as one of the major nerve centers for global organizing against apartheid that grew in the 1970s and exploded in the 1980s, with multiracial … [6] It took over the South African Railways Police Force in 1986[citation needed]. The cardiologist headed an apartheid-era secret germ warfare programme. It was added to several times over the years: For the former police force in Rhodesia, see, Flag of the South African Police (1981–1994), Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, South African Police Star for Distinguished Leadership, South African Police Star for Distinguished Service, South African Police Silver Cross for Gallantry, South African Police Star for Outstanding Service, South African Police Medal for Combating Terrorism, South African Police Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Commemorative Medal, South African Police Service Amalgamation Medal, South African Police Star for Faithful Service, South African Police Medal for Faithful Service, List of law enforcement agencies in South Africa, https://www.c-span.org/video/?56323-1/south-african-election-special-2, INTERPOL MEMBERSHIP – HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE, ACCOUNTABILITY IN NAMIBIA Human Rights And The Transition To Democracy, "Commissioners of the South African Police (1913–1994)", https://abs-isd-police.weebly.com/about.html, "The Role of Political Violence in South Africa's Democratisation", Truth and Reconciliation – The Voice of 'Prime Evil', https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=South_African_Police&oldid=1001596838, Defunct law enforcement agencies of South Africa, Wikipedia articles needing reorganization from February 2015, Articles needing additional references from February 2015, All articles needing additional references, Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2014, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Pages using law enforcement agency with local civilian police general nature, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1913–1928: Sir Theodorus Gustaff Truter, colonel, 1940–1945: George Robson Carruthers Baston, brigadier, 1945–1951: Robert John Palmer, major general, 1951–1954: Jan-Kamas Brink, major general, 1954–1960: Corrie I. Rademeyer, major general, 1960–1962: Hendrik Jacobus du Plooy, lieutenant general, 1962–1968: Johannes Martinus Keevy, lieutenant general, 1978–1983: Michiel Christian Wilhelm Geldenhuys, general, This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 11:37. The word “apartheid” means “separateness” in Afrikaans. [2]:Chp2 The Potgieter Commission reported back on the 2 February 1972 and the results were subsequently used to enact the Security Intelligence and State Security Council Act 64 of 1972 on 24 May 1972. The agents have claimed that the Z-Squad killed dissidents through letter bombs and snipers. Public amenities could not be shared among different races. During emergencies they were assisted by the military. [2]:Chp4, P.W. And state violence to maintain order and enforce labor demands has not disappeared. DT1757.C52 2011 968.05 2010050190 Botha had decided to split the intelligence gathering ability of South Africa amongst four agencies, the DMI, BOSS/DONS, Security Branch and Foreign Affairs, hoping to reduce the political dominance by one over the others, but the rivalry would continue. [3]:114, Police officials often called on the army for support in emergencies. [3]:114, In 1939, the SAP took over the South West African Police and became responsible for policing South West Africa, which was under South African administration at that time. They were formed either to carry out a specific task or to deal with a particular area of crime. On 20 November 1978, the Bureau of State Security was brought under tighter control as a cabinet portfolio called National Security managed by Prime Minister who also held the Minister of Defence portfolio. [2]:105 The SAP originally policed cities and urban areas, while the South African Mounted Riflemen, a branch of the Union Defence Force, enforced the state's writ in rural areas. [2]:Chp2 On the 1 October 1968, Lieutenant-General Hendrik van den Bergh, Deputy Police Commissioner and Head of the Security Branch, was promoted to General and then appointed as Security Advisor to Prime Minister John Vorster. Education was a key component of apartheid, and the Bantu Education Act of 1953 centralized black South African education and brought it under the control of the national government. We discussed in this class what might inspire a Jew to help a black South African noting, at the time only 2% of the white population in South Africa was Jewish but 60% of the white anti-apartheid activists in South Africa were Jewish (Feld 2010). 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