23. Vagaggini’s book — in spite of everything — is an important piece of work. Decorative trim is added “just because”. The Roman Canon should itself be revised to facilitate its use. 26 Cf. When the Council optimistically opened the windows of the Church to the world, this was the wind that blew in. He gathers not only the bread and the wine, but the … Bugnini describes the situation for us: The Roman Canon was the most sensitive and complex problem of all. It was often posited that as long as the Roman canon was said in the original Latin, no one was very much aware of its flaws — the presupposition being that the average priest’s knowledge of Latin was not sufficient to discern such things. This is the most solemn point of the anaphora, as it is from that point on the bread and wine are considered to be the literal body and blood of Christ and not from the Words of Institution as in some other traditions. The Ambrosian Rite during the centuries has lost its ancient variety, even if it maintains a richness of choices for the Preface and its first Eucharistic Prayer is slightly different form the Roman one mainly in the Words of Institution. The letter of the Secretary of State also included the following directives which would later appear in the Instruction on Eucharistic Prayers put out by the Congregation for Divine Worship: * Episcopal Conferences must put an end to experimental Eucharistic Prayers. This is a radical change in the Roman liturgy. 467-469): 1) Should the number of Eucharistic Prayers in the Roman Missal be increased? The Holy Father was putting the brakes on, but not discouraging further study. It is necessary to follow closely the various twists and turns in the path of this development, however, in order to be in a position to understand why things happened the way they did. R. We lift them up to the Lord. Bugnini remarks that the value of the vote was “quite relative” because the Fathers were not voting as actual representatives of their episcopal conferences, but as individual bishops (Bugnini, p.351). Over the last 15 years, the Monastery di San Benedetto has grown, attracting new vocations and pilgrims from around the world. Pope Paul VI granted an audience to the Cardinal Prefect on April 20th, issuing a written response a month later, on May 23, 1972, in which he forbade publicity about the discussion in progress, but gave authorization for a draft text to be prepared of an Instruction on Eucharistic Prayers. Eucharistic Prayer for Masses for Various Needs and Occasions, usually called the "Swiss Synod" prayer because it originated in the Swiss conference of bishops. (1940). My proposal is not radical. Signals were unclear, however, since the Congregation for Divine Worship gave permission for quite a number of Eucharistic Prayers for special groups and special occasions.19. Eucharistic Prayer III. (1959): 222-226. On June 22, 1971, a reply came from the Secretary of State: “Given the extent of the indiscriminate use of unapproved Eucharistic Prayers, the Holy Father wishes that a careful study be made of the problem in all its aspects, in order to find a solution that will remedy this serious situation of undisciplined liturgical practice” (Bugnini, p.467). 19 Cf. The Eucharistic Prayer is the heart of the Liturgy of the Eucharist. So “[w]ith this green light from the Holy Father, the Consilium set to work immediately.”. After laying out the situation concerning privately composed Eucharistic prayers and their abusive nature, the circular letter says: “After all the factors have been fully weighed, the decision is that at this time it is not advisable to grant to the conferences of bishops a general permission to compose or approve new eucharistic prayers. The Coptic Church, even if its own rite is the Alexandrian Rite, uses two anaphoras that belong to the literal tradition of the Antiochene rites: The main currently used anaphora of the Alexandrian Rite is the Liturgy of Saint Cyril the Great, which is a revision of the first Alexandrian Liturgy composed by Saint Mark. 5. Recently two typical additional ancient Eucharistic Prayers have been restored, to be used mainly on Easter and Holy Thursday. The argument about variety is not foolproof, however. Father Cassian Folsom, O.S.B., is a scholar of sacred music and liturgy, a cancer survivor, and the founder and prior emeritus of the Monks of Norcia. The progressive tendency of the group is clear. In other Latin rites, as in the Mozarabic Rite or the Gallican rite also the post-sanctus and the prayer after the Institution narrative till the doxology are completely variable.:147. It was decided to act upon Pope Paul’s instructions by adopting two already-existing anaphoras, that of Hippolytus (the inspiration for Eucharistic Prayer II) and the Alexandrian anaphora of St. the Roman Canon, may always be used; its use is particularly suited to days assigned a proper Communicantes or a proper Hanc igitur; to feasts of the apostles and saints mentioned in this Prayer; also to Sundays, unless pastoral reasons call for a different eucharistic prayer. The Apostolic See will set forth the norms to be observed in each case. Liturgical historian Josef Jungmann counters this critique of Vagaggini’s by pointing out that Vagaggini is a systematic theologian who wanted to impose a certain preconceived theological structure on the Eucharistic Prayer. The Apostolic Constitution Missale Romanum was promulgated on Holy Thursday, April 3, 1969, but because of fierce controversy, the editio typica was not issued until Holy Thursday of the following year, March 26, 1970. In some languages, the Anaphora is not distinguished from the Eucharistic Prayer, namely: Eucharistic Prayer in Western Christianity, Anglican Communion and Western Rite Orthodoxy. 31 Es ist nicht nur der ökumenische Zug unserer Zeit, der sich der Denkweise orientalischer Theologie anzunähern bestrebt ist, sondern darüber hinaus — man muss nur Vagagginis Darstellung liturgischer Grundbegriffe vor Augen haben — auch ein gutes Stück persönlicher Theologie des Verfassers.” Josef Jungmann, “Um die Reform des römischen Kanons: eine kritische Stellungnahme zu C. Vagagginis Entwürfen“, Liturgisches Jahrbuch 17 (1967) 11. In that case it would also feel obliged to see to it that any new prayer still displayed the Roman genius, so that the Roman Mass would continue to be faithful to the spirit of the Roman liturgy (Bugnini, p.449). How many times have official documents quoted — to no avail — the text of Sacrosanctum Concilium 22: Regulation of the liturgy depends solely on the authority of the Church, that is, on the Apostolic See and, accordingly as the law determines, on the bishop… Therefore, no other person, not even if he is a priest, may on his own add, remove, or change anything in the liturgy. Pastorally, the Eucharistic Prayers are three-way conversations involving God, the gathered assembly, and the ordained presider (priest or bishop). The most notable example of this advancement in liturgical studies is the edition by Anton Hänggi and Irmgard Pahl of Prex Eucharistica, an anthology of anaphoras and anaphora-type prayers from the Jewish liturgy, the New Testament, ancient texts of the early patristic period, oriental anaphoras of the various eastern liturgical families and western anaphoras of both the Roman and non-Roman western rites. On March 7, 1966, the Secretary of State communicated this message from Pope Paul VI to the Consilium: I hasten to tell you of His Holiness’ desire that the Canon itself not be altered, at least for the time being; any possible change must therefore be submitted for explicit approval of the Holy Father, who, for his part, believes he must not introduce any changes into the Canon itself without previous documented and rigorous studies and then, should the occasion arise, only after consulting with the bishops. Bugnini, p.466 for a list of these concessions. The Eucharistic Prayer includes the Epiclesis, which is the calling down of the Holy Spirit to sanctify the gifts, and the prayer … News of these experiments soon got out, and various people complained to the Holy See. The other three Eucharistic prayers in the Roman Missal are of later origin, and they reflect the historical evolution of the anaphora, or canon, of the Mass in various parts of the Roman Empire. It is appropriate that the commemoration of the … 33. In Egypt we have the Anaphora of Barcellona (and its related Louvain Coptic Papyrus), the Prayer into the Euchologion of Serapion, the Deir Balyzeh Papyrus, the Strasbourg papyrus and the ancient Anaphora of Saint Mark in Greek, which developed in the Coptic Liturgy of Saint Cyril. Eventually, however, he was persuaded to permit “two or three” alternatives “for use at particular specified times”, although he insisted that the Roman Canon be left intact. In more recent American editions of the Roman Missal, in addition to the four already mentioned, there are five others included in the appendix: two for Reconciliation and three for Masses with children. [The guidelines also stated that all Christian churches “the Roman rite excepted” use “a great variety” of anaphoras-Ed.]. It culminates with the Oblation in which the bread and wine is lifted up while the priest exclaims: "Thine own of thine own we offer unto thee on behalf of all and for all.". 3. A second reason for the change from one Eucharistic Prayer to many was dissatisfaction, on the part of some liturgical scholars, with the Roman canon. The complete disregard of authority is one of the salient characteristics of the Zeitgeist of the late 1960s. I really did not believe it. The eucharistic prayer … Nevertheless, what happened is something verifiable and concrete. 471-472): 1) In view of the present situation regarding the development and use of Eucharistic Prayers, should competent authority takes some steps to increase the number of these prayers? The Celebrant, whether bishop or priest, faces them and sings or says The Lord be with you. The Congregation for Divine Worship had been severely chastened. As can be seen, not all the modi followed the same line of argument. (Bugnini, p.449). This illuminating account will be presented in three parts. d. The Synod of Bishops was held in October, 1967. The Eucharist as Meal 4. Scholars find structural similarities in between the Roman and Egyptian anaphoral traditions::141 for instance the Barcelona Papyrus, as well as Deir Balyzeh Papyrus, include an epiclesis before the Words of Institution as in the Roman Canon. 10 Bernard Botte, “Où en est la réforme du Canon de la Messe?“, Les Questions Liturgiques et Paroissiales 49 (1968) 138-141. 28 This volume was published in 1968. The Eucharist as Memorial 5. Very precise norms should be set down for the use of each prayer; the choice of prayer should not be left to the celebrant. Advent, Lent, Easter. PO Box 385 There are at least seventy-two Maronite Anaphorae. 8 Cf. The earliest text similar to the Roman Canon is the quoted in De Sacramentis of Ambrose which include prayers close to the Canon's prayers such as Quam Oblationem, Qui pridie, Unde et Memores, Supra quae - Suplices te. The History of the Eucharistic Prayer 20 Part Two: The Parts of the Eucharistic Prayer … While the door had certainly been drawn to, it had not been slammed shut, since the circular letter included the following proviso: Moved by a pastoral love for unity, the Apostolic See reserves to itself the right to regulate a matter so important as the discipline of the eucharistic prayers. Contents Instructions 1 EucharisticPrayerI 3 EucharisticPrayerII 15 EucharisticPrayerIII 21 EucharisticPrayerIV 27 EucharisticPrayerforReconciliationI 33 Church teaching places the origin of the Eucharist in the Last Supper of Jesus with his disciples, at which he is believed to have taken bread and given it to his disciples, telling them to eat of it, because it was … Later, those changes would be introduced into the Roman canon as well. It is interesting to single out the motives for the proposed change: 1) The Roman Canon would be burdensome if recited out loud, because it is always the same. In the average parish today, Eucharistic Prayer II is the one most frequently used, even on Sunday. An Extraordinary Answer 10 3. In western Christian traditions which have a comparable rite, the Anaphora is more often called the Eucharistic Prayer for the four modern anaphoras in the Latin liturgy, with the first anaphora having the additional name of the Roman Canon. J. 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