TOP REVIEWS. [103] R. Venkataraman, who served as the President of India from 1987 to 1992, was elected from the Thanjavur Lok Sabha constituency in the 1951 elections. [91], Law and order in the city is maintained by the Thanjavur subdivision of the Tamil Nadu Police, headed by a Deputy Superintendent (DSP). [81], On 10 April 2013, the state government announced in the Assembly that Thanjavur municipality will be upgraded to a Municipal corporation. Kalamalla stone inscription (the first stone inscription) was done by Renati Chola king Erikal Muthuraju Dhanunjaya Varma of 575 CE[citation needed] According to local legend, the word Thanjavur is derived from "Tanjan", an asura (giant) in Hindu mythology who was killed in what is now Thanjavur by the Hindu god Neelamegha Perumal, a form of Vishnu. Most of the Great Living Chola Temples, which are UNESCO World Heritage Monuments, are located in and around Thanjavur.The foremost among these, the Brihadeeswara Temple, is located in the centre of the city. While Hindus form the majority, the city also has a substantial population of Muslims and Christians. These pieces were usually painted for Jain and Buddhist merchants, who would carry them on their travels across the Indian sub-continent between the 10th and 12th centuries. The nearest airport is Tiruchirapalli International Airport, located 59.6 km (37.0 mi) away from the city. There are frequent passenger trains from the city to towns like Thiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Karaikal, Tiruchirapalli, Kumbakonam, Mayiladuthurai and Nagore.[67][68][69]. Architecture and sculpture are inextricably linked in Hindu temples, which are usually devoted to a number of different deities . Thanjavur is situated in the Cauvery delta, at a distance of 314 km (195 mi) south-west of Chennai and 56 km (35 mi) east of Tiruchirappalli. North-East monsoon begins October and continues till January. Learn about the best of bests in the country. These early miniatures, regarded as Pala and Jain, were followed later by different schools of art such as Rajasthani, Mughal, Pahari and Deccani miniatures, each of which have their own characteristic style and uniqueness. A Thanjavur painting is a colorful panel painting done on a wood plank with a deity as the main theme of the composition. [63] With the expansion of the city area, the opportunities for agriculture is limited and only 7% of the population is involved in it. [8][16] Sevappa Nayak (1532–80), the Vijayanagar viceroy of Arcot, established himself as an independent monarch in 1532 (1549, according to some sources) and founded the Thanjavur Nayak kingdom. [107][108], Thanjavur has a total of 15 arts, science & management colleges and nine engineering colleges. [14] Thanjavur was eventually annexed along with the rest of the Chola kingdom by the Pandya king Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I (1268–1308) in 1279 and the Chola kings were forced to accept the suzerainty of the Pandyas. [118], There are 37 hospitals and seven clinical labs in Thanjavur that take care of the health care needs of the citizens. When the Chola Empire began to decline in the 13th century, the Pandyas from the south invaded and captured Thanjavur twice, first during 1218–19 and then during 1230. Thanjavur (Tamil: [taɲdʑaːʋuːɾ]), formerly Tanjore,[1] is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The collection of arms and armor from arsenal in the fort and the Tanjore palace, the prehistoric antiquities, and the numismatic collection, which is especially rich in coins of the various native dynasties of southern India and of the various European companies which have held was there, are other notable possessions of the institution. The villages Pudupattinam, Nanjikottai, Neelagiri, Melaveli, Pillaiyarpatti, Ramanathapuram, Pallieri, Vilar and Inathukanpatti are likely to be added to the municipal corporation limits. The Tamil works include treatises on medicine, and commentaries on Sangam literature. Further, each school of miniature painting has sub-divisions among them, encompassing a rich tradition of miniature paintings that are regarded as timeless manifestations of the country’s creative genius. C.V. Schwartz of the Danish Mission. Tanjore was upgraded to a second grade municipality in 1933 and first grade in 1943. The southern side of the third quadrangle of the palace has a 190 ft (58 m) tower-like building, called the Goodagopuram. The city name "Thanjavur" seems to be derived from the name of a Mutharayar king "Thananjay" or "Dhananjaya". details. [57], According to 2011 census, Thanjavur had a population of 222,943 with a sex-ratio of 1,042 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. Thanjavur is the headquarters of the Thanjavur District. Thanjavur is connected by rail with most important cities and towns in India. [2][3][citation needed], There are no references to Thanjavur in any of the Sangam period (third century BC to fourth century AD) Tamil records, though some scholars believe that the city has existed since that time. Since 1983, Thanjavur has been a special grade municipality. Madhubani Painting in Modern Times. [113], Electricity supply to Thanjavur is regulated and distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB). The number was increased to 18 in 1879 and 24 in 1883. a As of 2008, the municipality covers an area of 36.33 km2 (14.03 sq mi) and has a total of 51 members. Under the British, Thanjavur emerged as an important regional centre. [42], There are 20 registered schools in Thanjavur, catering to the primary, secondary and higher secondary educational needs of the city. [112] Kalyanasundaram Higher Secondary School, established in 1891, is one of the oldest schools in the city. add to enquiry cart-added-remove. Thanjavur is an important center of South Indian religion, art, and architecture. Most of the Great Living Chola Temples, which are UNESCO World Heritage Monuments, are located in and around Thanjavur. 3. For its namesake district, see, "Tanjore" redirects here. Madhubani art is an important part of the life of people in a village called Ranti in present day Bihar. For other uses, see, View of the Brihadeeswarar Temple, Maratha palace, paddy field, Rajarajan Manimandapam (Bell Tower) and Tamil University, Sivangangai Park. [8][9] During the first decade of the eleventh century, the Chola king Raja Raja Chola I (985–1014) constructed the Brihadeeswarar Temple at Thanjavur. [11][18] Thanjavur Nayaks were notable for their patronage of literature and arts. [41] When most of the Thanjavur Maratha kingdom was annexed by the British Empire in 1799, the Thanjavur Marathas continued to hold sway over the palace and the surrounding fort. [55][56] The sarees produced in the villages surrounding Thanjavur are sold in Thanjavur and neighbouring towns. Thanjavur is also famous for the 'Thalaiyatti bommai' or 'Dancing dolls' which is a doll made from clay, wood or plastic. Ekoji founded the Thanjavur Maratha kingdom which ruled Thanjavur till 1855. There are lots of high quality paintings in the Tanjore big temple that explain many things about the kingdom of Chola dynasty and also the greatness of particularly, the RajaRaja Chola. [21] Modern day Thanjavur railway junction has three rail heads leading to Tiruchirapalli, Kumbakonam and Thiruvarur. These days, it is becoming more and more rare to find genuine thangkas because of the length of time it takes to learn the skill and create a painting properly. The total percentage of land fit for cultivation is 58%. [85], Thanjavur comes under the Thanjavur State Assembly Constituency and it elects a member to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly once every five years. First discovered in the early 1970s, this art form can be tracked back to the 10th century A.D. It is the only one of its kind for the Tamil language doing higher research in Tamilology and advanced study in various allied branches like linguistics, translation, lexicography, music, drama and manuscriptology. Sangeetham is an ensemble of musical sounds, called swaras, which give melody and pleasant feeling to one's ears. add to enquiry cart-added-remove. The earliest miniature paintings in India were found on palm leaves. A few samples shown at the British Museum in the ‘40’s garnered great acclaim. The city acts as a focal point for food grains transported from the adjoining areas of the Cauvery Delta. The 1871 India census recorded a population of 52,171, making Thanjavur the third largest city in the Madras Presidency. The city is connected with Nagapattinam, Thiruvarur, Chennai, Coimbatore, Erode, Karur, Tirupur, Vellore, Perambalur, Ariyalur, Mysuru, Salem, Cuddalore, Viluppuram, Tiruchirappalli, Madurai, Kumbakonam, Mayiladuthurai, Karaikal, Mannargudi, Thiruthuraipoondi, Vedaranyam, Pattukkottai, Dindigul, Oddanchatram, Palani, Pudukkottai, Karaikudi, Tirunelveli, Bengaluru, Ernakulam, Nagercoil, Tirupathi, Trivandrum and Ooty through regular bus services. [5] The Rashtrakuta king Krishna II (878–914), a contemporary of the Chola king Parantaka I (907–950), claims to have conquered Thanjavur, but there are no records to support the claim. [22], Thanjavur is located at 10°48′N 79°09′E / 10.8°N 79.15°E / 10.8; 79.15[23] The tributaries of river Cauvery, namely, the Grand Anaicut canal (Pudhaaru), Vadavaaru and Vennaaru rivers flow through the city. The Maratha rulers patronized Carnatic music. Summer rains are sparse and the first monsoon, the South-West monsoon, commences in June and continues till September. [37][38][39] The temple was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987. Thananjaya(Dhananjaya)+Oor=Thanjavur. While the plains immediately adjoining the Cauvery river have been under cultivation from time immemorial, most of Thanjavur city and the surrounding areas lie in the "New Delta" – a dry, barren upland tract which was brought under irrigation during the early 19th century. 101 classical Kathakali stories are in traditional Kathakali dance; Kathakali dance is a combination of 5 elements of fine art. [31] The average rainfall is 37 inches (940 mm), most of which is contributed by the North-East monsoon. To maximise agricultural produce, organic farming is being implemented. [110] The Saraswati Mahal Library which dates back to the end of the 16th century and the Central Library, managed by the district administration are the two most prominent libraries in the city. During 1875 it was converted to a meter gauge line (MG line). [19] The rule of the dynasty came to an end when Thanjavur fell to the Madurai Nayak king Chokkanatha Nayak (1662–82) in 1673. 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