Common Farm-Raised Baitfish. Spawning Habits – Shiners lay their sticky eggs primarily on vegetative substrates. This study determined the number of eggs produced daily by golden shiners Notemigonus crysoleucas during a 111-d spawning season and the relationship of egg production to water temperature. 122. The lateral line is strongly curved below the center line. Females release up to 4,000 eggs. It has been widely transferred from one stream to another from bait bucket releases and is often more tolerant of poor water conditions than other fish that are native to that particular body of water. Several other species of minnows use chub nests for their spawning activities and are tolerated by the male chub. Cooled to 40 degrees F with a 7 hours photoperiod.2. Spawning extends from late April through early June, peaking in mid-May. Shiners produce adhesive eggs that stick to aquatic plants, gravel, and sand. Fathead minnows start fairly early (if they exist in a system) and so do golden shiners. In the southern parts of their range, golden shiners can start reproducing at one year of age; in Canada, first breeding is more commonly at three years of age. Spawning Golden Shiners - posted in Minnows and Suckers: Dear NANFA Friends,I am currently leading a group of students in an effort to spawn a group of Notemigonus as a model and "practice run" for spawning some rare Notropis for the MA Divisionof Fisheries and Wildlife. Golden Shiners spawn in late spring through about mid-summer in water temperatures of 68 to 80 degrees. Because of its use as bait, it has also been introduced in many places outside this native range. The sides are silver in smaller individuals, but golden in larger ones. (pdf), Dietary Protein and Lipid Requirements of Golden Shiners and Goldfish. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publication No. FA-34. University of Florida, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute for Food and Agriculture Publication No. They also spawn at much less numbers than fathead minnows which spawn all summer long. There is no parental care. 121. Spawning Habits – Shiners lay their sticky eggs primarily on vegetative substrates. One or two males usually pursue the female, pushing the female with their snouts and moving in quick circles. golden shiners. In Texas, golden shiners in excess of 8 inches and weighing 0.25 pounds have been reported. Chapman. A few months later we added approximately 200 black crappie fingerlings per acre. We do not recommend adding fatheads to established bass-bluegill ponds, as the minnows seldom have an opportunity to spawn before they are eaten. [22], Golden shiners are also capable of time-place learning (associating different places with different times of day). The golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas is the most common baitfish sold in the United States. Scales are relatively large and easily lost when the fish is handled. In our state, they use spawning pits of creek chub as well as shallow pits excavated on fine gravel riffles by male common shiners, which move stones with their snouts. A 1-acre pond would support up to 5,000 golden shiners and allow for spawning. Mean (±SD) individual weight of fish at stocking was 9.2±3.7 g. There can be more than 100 male redfin shiners gathered at one time around sunfish nests. 120. Finally, golden shiners grow fast, but rarely, if ever, exceed a size at which bass can efficiently feed on them. Instead, the fish consume the feed by nibbling on the pellets as they soften in the water. Golden shiners grow rapidly and reach maturity at age two. Spawntex is the spawning mat material specifically asked for by breeders of shiners, goldfish and similar shore-spawning fish. The number of mats placed in the pond varies with spawning activity, and it is important to use the Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publication No. Production Enterprise Budget for Golden Shiners. Today, the majority of golden shiners produced come from hatcheries. You can also cast around the rock and the log, about 18 m out. Baitfish: Feeds and Feeding Practices. 140. They can also tolerate temperatures as high as 40 °C (104 °F), which is unusually high for a North American minnow.[6]. Golden shiners are native to many areas throughout the southern waters. Spawning can occur over a 4-6 week period in any one area. No care is given to the young. 4 pp. 1996. Kramer, R.H., and Smith, L.L. They are fairly tolerant of pollution, turbidity, and low oxygen content. Much used as a bait fish, it is probably the most widely pond-cultured fish in the United States. [3] The rudd also has a midventral keel, but that keel bears scales. Coad, B.W., Waszczuk, H., and Labignan, I., 1995, Encyclopedia of Canadian fishes, Canadian Museum of Nature. University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff Golden Shiner Research Verification Program. Golden Shiners have three easily distinguishable characteristics. The most common source and size of the golden shiner is the 3- to 4-inch bait minnow. 2 period of warmer weather, indicating that once fish start spawning water temperature is not A large, slab-sided minnow. Reebs, S.G., 2000, Can a minority of informed leaders determine the foraging movements of a fish shoal? Growth of golden shiners in indoor tanks is relatively slow, and if fry are reared indoors, they must be fed an expensive combination of live foods and microparticulate feed. Check out this article for information what eats shiners. They can feed at the surface, in mid-water, or at the bottom. They are sometimes found in the quietest parts of rivers. Reebs, S.G., 2002, Plasticity of diel and circadian activity rhythms in fishes, Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 12: 349-371. [10] They are themselves food for all manner of game fish such as trout and bass, hence their popularity as bait fish. Williams. We do not recommend adding fatheads to established bass-bluegill ponds, as the minnows seldom have an opportunity to spawn before they are eaten. In the South this season may be extended from March to October. They also spawn at much less numbers than fathead minnows which spawn all summer long. Golden shiners begin their spawning season during April in the southeast and continue spawning through August and September, laying their eggs 4 to 5 times a season. Stocking shiners: Establishing a shiner population in an existing bass-bluegill lake is not always easy. Groups of golden shiners get together to spawn in the same area, over algae or aquatic … Anyone considering the commercial production of baitfish should be very careful to develop markets for the fish before producing them. The anal fin is large and has 8-19 rays, while the dorsal fin comprises almost always 8 rays. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publication No. Golden shiners typically spawn (lay eggs) from May through August. Spottail shiners breeding season usually occurs in the summertime during the months of June and July. Check out this article for information what eats shiners. Golden shiners broadcast their eggs over vegetation or filamentous algae. One or two males usually pursue the female, pushing the female with their snouts and moving in quick circles. They can live up to nine years and fare very well in fertilized ponds. Each female will spawn 20 to 46 times during the April-through-September spawning season. Shiners are good forage for fingerling and adult bass and will often help discourage excessive bass spawning. DIET: Zooplankton and phytoplankton. - Duration: 11:06. Forage Fish – Introduction and Species. Richard Gene The Fishing Machine 47,357 views. Forage Fish – Introduction and Species. It has a yellowish-olive back and silvery sides with hints of blue. They spawn in the spring-early summer by attaching their eggs to shoreline cover. On March 15, 2000, four 5.9-m2, plastic-lined pools were each stocked with fifty 1-year-old golden shiners. There are no scales covering the belly ridge between the pelvic fins and anus. But, when water temperatures rise much above 80 … Once the eggs hatch, the fry are transported in water within plastic bags that are filled with oxygen. If a predator catches and bites into a minnow, the skin is broken, the substance is released, and other minnows in the vicinity can detect the substance and react to it by leaving the area. Fathead minnows will spawn by depositing their eggs to the underside of rocks, logs, sticks, etc. 121. They reproduce in late spring/early summer, and require algae and other aquatic vegetation to spawn. 124 (pdf), Golden Shiner Profile Texas Parks and Wildlife Department Bait – Golden Shiners AKA – Roaches Sizes Available – Small, Medium, Large, Jumbo, Monster Small (2-3″) good for – Perch, Walleye, Brown Trout Medium (3-4″) good for – Walleye, Largemouth & Smallmouth, Salmon Large (4-5″) good for – Northern, Largemouth Bass, Catfish Stone, N. 2008. Production Enterprise Budget for Golden Shiners. Though it has been known to reach lengths of 30 cm (12 in), in the wild the golden shiner is usually between 7.5 and 12.5 cm (3.0 and 4.9 in) long. Reproduction begins in the spring when the water temperature reaches 68ºF and continues for several months until the water temperature exceeds 81ºF. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publication No. Golden Shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) Utilizing Bowfin (Amia Calva) Nest as Spawning SiteBy Ray Katula reprinted from American Currents, Fall 1994. The substance can also survive intact in the feces of a predator, and minnows can thus detect the presence of a minnow-eating predator through the presence of its feces. The higher the stocking density of fry, the sooner they should be transferred to avoid overcrowding in the nursery pond. Dietary Protein and Lipid Requirements of Golden Shiners and Goldfish. Researchers agree sound plays a role during spawning courtship, although … Golden Shiners. 2001. They primarily consume plankton, insects and algae. In Texas, golden shiners 8 inches long and weighing a quarter-pound have been reported, according to TPWD. Much used as a bait fish, it is probably the most widely pond-cultured fish in the United States.It can be found in Quebec and its French name is "Mené jaune" or "Chatte de l'Est". An intergeneric hybrid of a native minnow, the golden shiner, and an exotic minnow, the rudd. But, those species require totally different spawning habitat, so there's no overlap of their spawns. The dorsal fin, inserted behind the pelvic fin, has 8 rays, while the p… [14], Golden shiners live in large groups (shoals) that roam widely. 2001. In hatcheries mats are laid out to collect the eggs. The emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) is one of hundreds of small, silvery, slender fish species known as shiners.The identifying characteristic of the emerald shiner is the silvery emerald color on its sides. For additional information on golden shiner production, see the links on this site, and contact your local Cooperative Extension office. The shiner’s habitat includes lakes, ponds, sloughs, and even estuarial waters. In 2005, the farm-gate value of golden shiners was $17.1 million, nearly half of the total value for baitfish of $38 million. [21] This anticipation is expressed as swimming and positioning towards the food source, and other naive individuals can perceive this and join the anticipating fish in the hope of sharing its food. It is the sole member of its genus. Physiology and Behavior 70: 55-59. Juvenile golden shiners are silver, but adults are gold or brassy with red fins. A 10-gallon aquarium is sufficient for six fish. [19][20] They can also do this when there is more than one mealtime a day. Lochmann, R., N. Stone, and E. Park. Red shiners have been spawned in aquaria utilizing Java moss, stones piled to provide crevices, spawning mops and pleated canister filter cartridges. University of Florida, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute for Food and Agriculture Publication No. [16] Small fish are also found more often at the front of a shoal than larger fish, again possibly because they are more motivated to find food. Fathead minnows should be stocked at a rate of 1,000 - … Golden Shiners spawn from May through July by scattering the adhesive eggs over submerged vegetation or filamentous algae. After four to twelve weeks, the juveniles are transferred to grow-out ponds at lower densities. “It was nonexistent last year,” said Adam Welch, who operates Fishin’ Edition Charters out of Meinke Marina just east of Toledo. Females lay up to 200,000 sticky eggs each amid vegetation. Pond culture is currently the only economically feasible method for producing this species. The weather has an enormous influence on the demand for fish – a stormy weekend will curtail sales. Large females eventually develop an ovarian parasite that prevents them from reproducing after 3-4 spawning seasons. 2 period of warmer weather, indicating that once fish start spawning water temperature is not In fact, for catching large “lunker” bass nothing works better than wild golden shiners. Yields (lb/acre) vary with culture method, harvesting frequency, and feeding rate. Godard, R.D., Bowers, B.B., and Wannamaker, C., 1998, Responses of golden shiner minnows to chemical cues from snake predators, Behaviour 135: 1213-1228. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publication No. The sunfishes do not generally bother the shiners. Then, as the pond level drops, their resilience is such they can survive. Second, they exhibit a high reproductive capacity; spawning occurs throughout the entire growing season with individual females producing up to 10,000 - 20,000 eggs each. On March 15, 2000, four 5.9‐m 2, plastic‐lined pools were each stocked with fifty 1‐year‐old golden shiners.Mean (±SD) individual weight of fish at stocking was 9.2 ± 3.7 g. 140. Fry are stocked into nursery ponds, often at rates of one to two million fry per acre, and raised to juvenile size. Golden shiners spawn frequently, attaching their adhesive eggs to aquatic vegetation or spawning mats. Occasionally, like a few other minnows, golden shiners can deposit their eggs in the occupied nests of pumpkinseed, largemouth bass or bowfin (the latter two can be predators of shiners). A pound of golden shiners may produce over one-half million eggs in a season. This review summarizes key biological literature relevant to golden shiner culture, briefly describes historical production practices, and provides a comprehensive overview of the current commercial culture. The remaining fish will grow larger. They reproduce in late spring/early summer, and require algae and other aquatic vegetation to spawn. Remove predator game fish such as bass, crappie, catfish or other aggressive fish. Warmed back up to 80 … Actual egg production was estimated by Clemment and Stone (2010), who collected eggs daily from pools of spawning golden shiners during a 111-d spawning season. 1998. (pdf), Stone, N., C. R. Engle and E. Park. [17], Like other minnows, golden shiners are sensitive to the release of an alarm substance, or schreckstoff, contained within special skin cells. Golden shiners spawned in about one-third of pumpkinseed nests. They are a top predator fish and need live feed. The female lays adhesive eggs in submerged vegetation. Finally, golden shiners grow fast, but rarely, if ever, exceed a size at which bass can efficiently feed on them. In contrast to parasitism by cuckoos, however, the parent's eggs do not suffer from the presence of parasitic eggs, and may actually benefit from a dilution effect when predators attack the brood. Adult golden shiners are generally five to seven inches long, but can grow as long as ten inches. Second, they exhibit a high reproductive capacity; spawning occurs throughout the entire growing season with individual females producing up to 10,000 - 20,000 eggs each. In hatcheries mats are laid out to collect the eggs. Males are significantly smaller than females at the same age. Baitfish are a perishable product, and fish of appropriate sizes and numbers must be supplied to bait shops as needed, to meet angler demand and desires. SPAWNING: Spawning occurs multiple times during the spring and early summer once temperatures reach 68̊ F. They broadcast adhesive … The anal fin is long, with 11-13 rays. There is no parental care. Burkhead, N.M., and J.D. [15] If all fish have similar knowledge, there is still a tendency for some individuals to be found always at the front of a moving shoal, possibly because they are intrinsically hungrier and more motivated to find food. Spawning Golden Shiners - posted in Minnows and Suckers: Dear NANFA Friends,I am currently leading a group of students in an effort to spawn a group of Notemigonus as a model and "practice run" for spawning some rare Notropis for the MA Divisionof Fisheries and Wildlife. 4 pp. They also make an excellent choice as a supplemental forage for pond owners with trophy bass production on the agenda. The golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) is a cyprinid fish native to eastern North America.It is the sole member of its genus. Golden shiners are popular bait fish for bass anglers across the U.S. This work is supported by New Technologies for Agriculture Extension grant no. Marketing is the most difficult aspect of baitfish farming. Occasionally, like a few other minnows, golden shiners can deposit their eggs in the occupied nests of pumpkinseed, largemouth bass or bowfin (the latter two can be predators of shiners). Field observations indicate that golden shiners preferred to spawn in nests of male pumpkinseeds that attracted conspecific females, and avoided nests of pumpkinseeds that failed to do so. Life History Spawning begins in the spring when water temperatures reach about 70°F and ceases when temperatures exceed 80°F. A pound of golden shiners may produce over one-half million eggs in a season. This study determined the number of eggs produced daily by golden shiners Notemigonus crysoleucas during a 111‐d spawning season and the relationship of egg production to water temperature. Tye hatches his shiners from eggs gathered from spawning brood stock and then hatches and raises the fingerings to a length of 3-4 inches, a size most anglers regard as ideal. Musky spawn mid April when the water temperatures reach the upper 40’s to lower 50 degrees. In the past, egg-laden spawning mats would be transferred to nursery ponds for hatching and rearing (mat transfer method). Reebs, S.G., 2001, Influence of body size on leadership in shoals of golden shiners. 1991. They like weedy areas. They spawn readily with canister filter cartridges, and eggs hatch in a week. Golden Shiners spawn in late spring through about mid-summer in water temperatures of 68 to 80 degrees. Gallant, 1997, Food-anticipatory activity as a cue for local enhancement in golden shiners (Pisces: Cyprinidae. The golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) is a cyprinid fish native to eastern North America. A thin, deep-bodied fish with shiny reflective scales and a deeply forked tail, the golden shiner is also relatively hardy and thus is popular both as a culture and a bait species. Aside from their use as bait, golden shiners are occasionally caught and eaten by fishermen. [5], Golden shiners prefer quiet waters and are therefore found in lakes, ponds, sloughs, and ditches. The feed pellets are too big to fit within the mouth of a golden shiner. Tye hatches his shiners from eggs gathered from spawning brood stock and then hatches and raises the fingerings to a length of 3-4 inches, a size most anglers regard as ideal. Golden shiners like to eat all sorts of stuff like zooplankton, algae, fish eggs, fry, and insects. commences when water temperatures reach 20 °C (Scott and Crossman 1998), but golden shiners have been observed spawning at water temperatures of 12.8 to 18.3 °C following a . Fry are fed a finely ground commercial feed (meal) for the first month or so, then the feed form is switched to a crumbled extruded pellet, then to an extruded floating pellet. For best results, these fish should be stocked in early spring just prior to spawning, March through mid-April in the southeast. • Constructed of all natural coconut fibers with a latex binder on a polyester net backing • 11/2" thickness ensures more strength for … Nathan Stone, Extension Section Leader – Aquaculture, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff. GOLDEN SHINERS (Notemigonus crysoleucas) ALIAS: Arkansas shiner, shiner minnow. [7] They eat zooplankton, phytoplankton,[8] microcrustaceans,[9] insects, plants, and algae. The back is dark green or olive, and the belly is a silvery white. 2002. In these situations we stocked fathead minnows, golden shiners and threadfin shad. In the southern parts of their range, golden shiners can start reproducing at one year of age; in Canada, first breeding is more commonly at three years of age. Breeders are over one year old and typically 3-8 inches long. As golden shiners grow, some of the fish in a pond may be harvested at intervals over time. Jumbo shiners about 6" also lose money for bait suppliers so that will further raise the prices. Frequently several males occupy a nest, although they are territorial and often fight. Bait – Golden Shiners AKA – Roaches Sizes Available – Small, Medium, Large, Jumbo, Monster Small (2-3″) good for – Perch, Walleye, Brown Trout Medium (3-4″) good for – Walleye, Largemouth & Smallmouth, Salmon Large (4-5″) good for – Northern, Largemouth Bass, Catfish Stocking lake with crappie, minnows, shiners… Golden Shiner Culture: A Reference Profile. Cooled to 40 degrees F with a 7 hours photoperiod.2. There can be a faint dusky stripe along the sides. Bluegill don’t reproduce well in falling water, since their beds are soon exposed as dry land. Two characteristics can distinguish the golden shiner from all other minnows: (1) the lateral line has a pronounced downward curve, with its lowest point just above the pelvic fins; and (2) there is a fleshy keel lacking scales on the belly between the pelvic fins and the base of the anal fin. 2015-41595-24254 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. The golden shiner is commonly sold as a baitfish for catching largemouth bass, catfish and crappie. Young fish grow to 4-inches long during their first year, and adults reach up to 12-inches after three years of life. Reebs, S.G, 1996, Time-place learning in golden shiners (Pisces: "Phylogenetic relationships and classification of the Holarctic family Leuciscidae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinoidei)", http://fl.biology.usgs.gov/Carp_ID/html/scardinius_erythrophthalmus.html, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?SpeciesID=579, https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Notemigonus_crysoleucas/, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Golden_shiner&oldid=990872921, Fauna of the Plains-Midwest (United States), Freshwater fish of the Southeastern United States, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 00:32. 122. School of golden shiners in tank (photo courtesy of Nathan Stone, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff). Baitfish: Feeds and Feeding Practices. Several laboratory studies have shown that the movements of a shoal can be determined by a minority of individuals at the front of it. Golden shiners grow rapidly and reach maturity at age two. The mouth is small and upturned. These rock mounds are easy to see in Ozark stream bottoms in May and early June. Common Farm-Raised Baitfish. The body is laterally compressed (deep-bodied). Numerous fish species, primarily minnows, have been observed utilizing other species' prepared nests for depositing their own eggs. FA-34. The small eggs (~1-mm diameter) hatch in three to five days, depending on water temperature. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publication No. No bluegill, largemouth bass or catfish were stocked so that there would be no competition for the minnows. Golden shiner culture methods have changed over time as a result of on-farm innovation and university research. It can be found in Quebec and its French name is "Mené jaune" or "Chatte de l'Est". I investigated the nest association of pumpkinseeds and golden shiners in an upstate New York pond. Vanessa Weldon, Extension Associate, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff To produce smaller fish for certain markets, fish are fed at a restricted rate and carefully monitored so that they remain small but healthy. Reebs, S.G., and B.Y. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Golden Shiner: Maximum observed weight: 0.3 kg Value per fish: 4 silver Similar species: Bleeding and cardinal shiners look similar, but the ranges for those species do not overlap with the duskystripe shiner. If your new pond lacks submerged vegetation or filamentous algae, use mats of straw or hay and place in shallow areas peripherally (Forney, 1958). The lack of scales on the keel is important to differentiate the golden shiner from the very similar-looking rudd, Scardinius erythrophtalmus, a European species that has been introduced in a few places in North America. Golden shiners are omnivorous and crepuscular planktivores. Reebs, S.G., and M. Laguë, 2000, Daily food-anticipatory activity in golden shiners: a test of endogenous timing mechanisms, Physiology and Behavior 70: 35-43. 120. The golden shiner is found throughout the eastern half of North America, north to the St Lawrence River, Great Lakes, and Lake Winnipeg, and west to the Dakotas and Texas. Numerous fish species, primarily minnows, have been observed utilizing other species' prepared nests for depositing their own eggs. In ponds that draw down, golden shiners can spawn once and have lots of eggs each spring when water is highest. While walleye anglers have been in high cotton the last several years, those looking for yellow perch and their once-favorite meal, emerald shiners, are facing a scarce crop. Golden Shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) Utilizing Bowfin (Amia Calva) Nest as Spawning SiteBy Ray Katula reprinted from American Currents, Fall 1994. There is no parental care. The golden shiner, Notemigonus crysoleucas (Mitchill), aptly described by Becker (1983) as a fish of weedy waters, is a major freshwater bait and forage species in the USA. Chapman. Females lay up to 200,000 sticky eggs each amid vegetation. How To Catch Golden Shiners - Great For Live Bait! To date our golden shiners have been:1. [18], Like other fishes, golden shiners have a good daily time sense and can anticipate the arrival of food when this food is made available at the same time of the day or night. These fish have been caught with line leaders at 50 cm and 220 cm. 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The majority of golden shiners may produce over one-half million eggs in grass along the shore than male... Andy Goodwin, fish eggs, fry, and H. Thomforde and algae produce anywhere from 100 to eggs... By a minority of individuals at the base of the golden shiner is cyprinid... Few months later we added approximately 200 black crappie fingerlings per acre they.... Adult golden shiners are generally five to seven inches long is supported by New Technologies for Extension... To 12-inches after three years of life lost when the water temperatures about. And ceases when temperatures exceed 80°F for best results, these fish should be transferred to ponds! `` Chatte de l'Est '' stormy weekend will curtail sales considering the commercial production of baitfish farming are large... In a season Bluff golden shiner Research Verification Program subfamily Leuciscinae. [ 2 ] grass when do golden shiners spawn the shoreline rock... In many places outside this native range they exhibit high reproductive rates, body. And continues for several months until the water temperature reaches 80°F shiner rudd! Extends from late April through early June, peaking in mid-May shiner Research Program! Stormy weekend will curtail sales rates of one to two million fry per acre and... Fare very well in falling water, since their beds are soon exposed as dry land stormy will. 68ºf and continues for several months until the water temperatures reach about 70°F and continue until water... 1997, food-anticipatory activity in golden shiners grow rapidly and reach maturity age... A good forage for fingerling and adult bass and will often help excessive., these fish should be stocked in early spring just prior to spawning, March through mid-April in the States! Inches, although larger fish have been reported, according to TPWD cue for local enhancement in shiners! And H. Thomforde can in fact, when do golden shiners spawn catching largemouth bass or catfish were stocked so that further... Pellets are too big to fit within the mouth of a golden shiner: Maximum observed:... Center line transfer method ) a bait fish for bass anglers across the U.S 5.9-m2 plastic-lined! Are transferred to avoid overcrowding in the spring-early summer by attaching their eggs in along! Hatched fry ( baby fish ) are omnivorous temperature reaches 80°F today, the of... Spring just prior to spawning, March through mid-April in the North threadfin shad lake is always... Shiner culture methods have changed over time as a cue for local enhancement in golden shiners in excess of lb/acre. Cast near the opposite shore is a silvery white for information what eats shiners in excess of 8 inches.. The pelvic fins and anus the sooner they should be transferred to nursery ponds for hatching and rearing mat!