263); involves empowering the local informal and formal leadership and training citizens in neighbourhoods and institutions, including schools, regarding home and institutional preparation, medical and psychological first aid and community and family resilience (pg. (81) Am J Community Psychol. …is knowledgeable and healthy. 2015 Apr;77:55-61. The Constituent Elements of Community Resilience PubMed PMID: 2014-22470-001. X Again, of a resilient community: Thematic area 2: Characteristics of a resilient community Risk assessment Component of l Community hazard/risk assessments carried out which provide comprehensive resilience 1: picture of all major hazards and risks facing community (and potential risks). X Communication: Effective communication was seen as an important by most authors. For example, the Rockefeller Foundation and Arup International Development recently created the City Resilience Framework10 to aid with evidence-based policy, to reduce the disaster risk in cities and to identify functions of what makes a resilient city. 2008 Feb;32(1):161-73. Disaster resilience as the ability of social units (e.g., organizations, communities) to mitigate hazards, contain the effects of disasters when they occur, and carry out recovery activities in ways that minimize social disruption and mitigate the effects of future disasters (pg. Tierney KJ. adequate resourcing (18, 109); harnessing local resources (57); awareness and use of resources in the community (72); available resources (100); community-level resources (112); resource management (61); distribution of tangible resources (48 , 69, 70); social resources (70, 91, 94); resources (15, 17, 19, 31, 92, 113); natural and economic resources (61); access to money and other financial instruments and assets (70); diverse economic resources (65); physical infrastructure (59); food services and distribution (30); physical and economic resources effectively used to aid recovery (53)), Post-disaster economic development(e.g. 74) In spite of this, evidence was found of nine core elements of community resilience that were common among the definitions. healthcare services(21); medical and mental health services (107); health and mental health resilience (107); healthcare and related social services (22); medical care (70); emergency response capabilities (61)):Physical health(e.g. Arlington, VA: RAND Corporation; 2011. PubMed PMID: 14736317. Collective efficacy and empowerment 131), A new body of work is attempting to expand the focus on resilience as a characteristic of the individual to one of resilience as a community and cultural process. Mental Outlook: Mental outlook was defined as attitudes, feelings and views when facing the uncertainty that typically occurs after a disaster or when contemplating a future one. Epub 2010/09/10. eng. (pg. 9th US and 10th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering Toronto, Canada Retrieved from http://peoplesresilienceorg/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/2010_Renschler_PEOPLES_Resiliencepdf; 2010. [same definition as (54)] (pg. Ultimate vision of CR [community resilience]: communities that are able to withstand and recover from adversity. 2003. (57) As described in the current online CART manual, the CART Assessment Survey is based on a four-factor model of community resilience characterized by four interrelated CART domains: (a) Connection and Caring (including relatedness, participation, shared values, support and nurturance, equity, justice, hope, and diversity); (b) Resources (including natural, physical, information, human, social, and financial resources); (c) Transformative Potential (deriving from the ability of communities to frame collective experiences, collect and analyse relevant data, assess community performance, and build skills); and (d) Disaster Management (addressing prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery). We hope that you will be excited at the opportunity to engage with this resource, and learn to embrace the breadth and depth of the Characteristics. Training and education What Do We Mean by ‘Community Resilience’? (107) J Affect Disord. Additionally, definitions exist that blend one or more of these general definition types. PubMed PMID: 2015-05405-017. The authors argue that this ambiguity does not make the term meaningless but that researchers and professionals should understand that a diverse range of meanings exist, especially when considering interventions85. A bad time for disaster: Economic stress and disaster resilience. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies; 2010. hope and ability to persevere in spite of adversity (58); credo (vision of community that depicts a better future/ horizon of hope) (64); introject meaning into one’s own life (93); sense of hope and community pride (12))Adaptability(e.g. Factual knowledge base, collective efficacy and empowerment, and training and education have been proposed as useful within the element of local knowledge in order to mitigate vulnerabilities caused by how a community understands its risks. English. American Behavioral Scientist. 2007 2007;75(5):671-82. The positive effects of connectedness and cohesion within the element of community networks and relationships have been seen, especially in recent times, to help people deal with uncertainty after a disaster. 2012 Epub 2006/03/04. social capacity, social support systems, and social cohesion (8, 63, 96); collective social support and collective efficacy (66); social support (15); social capital (97, 112); community cohesion (62, 64, 70); social connectedness (22, 23); social capital (specified to include trust and social cohesion) (16, 52, 54, 55, 61, 70); build trust and strong ties (13, 16, 97); social networks and capital (103, 104); commitment and shared values (17, 31, 92, 113); collective cohesion and self-efficacy (16, 70); community pride (12)) Stratta P, Capanna C, Dell'Osso L, Carmassi C, Patriarca S, Di Emidio G, et al. Chandra and colleagues22 noted that “strong communication networks are critical for resilience (p. 20)” and suggested that networks should have “diversity of mode and content,” for example through the use of social media to support and promote emergency messages, preferably using a trusted and established source of information. Ecological resilience, the ability of an ecosystem to maintain its normal patterns of nutrient cycling and biomass production after being subjected to damage caused by an ecological disturbance. English. London, UK: Department for International Development; 2011. p. 20. 2015 Feb;59(2):200-19. 314) In part, this is determined by how much a community is capable of self-organisation to maximise risk reduction measures and apply learning from past disasters to forward-looking disaster preparedness. (95) (pg. Methods: We undertook a systematic literature review of definitions of community resilience related to disasters. Three general types of definition were found: 1) ‘process’ definitions (i.e. English. economic capacity and diversification (55); economic equity (62, 81); economic development (52, 59, 112); economic well-being (22, 23); economic development (61, 65, 67); localised economy within ecological limits (99); economic rehabilitation (21); proactive investments and policy decisions to reduce loss of lives, costs, and socioeconomic impacts of future disasters (74); economic resilience (69); access to money and other financial instruments and assets (70); diverse economic resources (65))Post-disaster economic programming(e.g. Thus, community resilience is not simply the return to homeostasis, but rather implies a potential to group from adversity that derives, in part, from deliberate, meaningful cooperation and action (pg. (pg. Likewise, ‘community’ is a contested idea that makes different kinds of sense according to the value, location and perspective of the reader (pg. The communities advancing resilience toolkit (CART): An intervention to build community resilience to disasters. American Psychologist. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Overall, we identified 615 publications. 2001 2001/09/01;24(2):157-69. it makes explicit that resilience is more likely to occur when we provide the services, supports and health resources that make it more likely for every child to do well in ways that are meaningful to his or her family and community. PLoS One. You are free to share (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) or adapt (remix, transform, and build upon) the material with appropriate attribution. Disaster Medicine & Public Health Preparedness. 279) The final number of elements was reached when no new theme could be uniquely supported or reduced into other existing elements. or (framework or taxonomy) Community Resilience Index(52,114) eng. Ganor and Ben-Lavy64 described hope as a vision of community that depicts a better future after a disaster. Recognizing the importance of information and communication in community resilience, one goal of the current study was to confirm the existence of a fifth domain, Information and Communication, addressing the availability of information and trust in public officials. English. The importance of the concepts of disaster, catastrophe, violence, trauma and barbarism in defining posttraumatic stress disorder in clinical practice. Chrisman AK, Dougherty JG. Dobalian A, Claver M, Fickel JJ. X In order to facilitate disaster preparedness, the Census Bureau has developed new small area estimates, … Table 1. The resilience activation framework: A conceptual model of how access to social resources promotes adaptation and rapid recovery in post-disaster settings. (79) UNISDR Terminology on disaster risk reduction Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations; 2009 [Available from: http://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/terminology.]. 3) The role of demographics, resources, and life stress. Resilience is the ability of a social system to respond and recover from disasters and includes those inherent conditions that allow the system to absorb impacts and cope with the event, as well as post-event adaptive processes that facilitate the ability of the system to re-organize, change, and learn in response to the event (pg. 2014;5. 1) Bonanno GA, Galea S, Bucciarelli A, Vlahov D. Psychological resilience after disaster: New York City in the aftermath of the September 11th terrorist attack. Child & Youth Care Forum; 2013: Springer. 370), Community resilience entails the ongoing and developing capacity of the community to account for its vulnerabilities and develop capabilities that aid that community in (1) preventing, withstanding, and mitigating the stress of a health incident; (2) recovering in a way that restores the community to a state of self-sufficiency and at least the same level of health and social functioning after a health incident; and (3) using knowledge from a past response to strengthen the community’s ability to withstand the next health incident (pg. PubMed PMID: 2014-57046-007. Community disaster vulnerability: Theory, research, and practice. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Ltd.; 2007. p. 260-1. Actively involving community stakeholders in planning before a disaster, and running practice drills or exercises with a focus on risk management were cited as contributing to community resilience22,24. In a recent review on assessment models and tools of community disaster resilience, Ostadtaghizadeh and colleagues59 produced a definition of community resilience now used by the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction: the “ability of a system, community, or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions (p. 3).” This definition blended the general types of ‘absence of adverse effect’ definition and ‘range of positive attributes’ definition. X 2) Four international exemplary cases of resilient urban communities are analyzed from the four dimensions, and eight typical characteristics of urban community resilience are identified and explained. Prehosp Disaster Med. CDR Review(59) Administration & Society. 442) 2006 2006/01/01;3(2):77-101. Epub 2004/12/01. Ottawa, Canada: Government of Canada; 2012. English. (pg. 3), Resilience is defined as adaptation and coping despite collective adversity in a system (individual, family, organization, community, country). The mental outlook of a community is therefore important in shaping the willingness and ability of community members to continue on in the face of uncertainty. 4). Turnbull M, Sterrett C, Hilliboe A. Resilience is defined as adaptation and coping despite collective adversity in a system (individual, family, organization, community, country). Definition(s) (direct quote) 391) RAND report(22) This provides some reassurance that the inclusion of missing studies would not radically alter the nature of the elements that we identified. Ganor M, Ben-Lavy Y. 370) Resilience and coping in trauma spectrum symptoms prediction: A structural equation modeling approach. 2001 Zakour MJ, Gillespie DF. (pg. 2009 Oct;44(10):887-98. (pg. Figure 1 shows the results of the search strategy. Reference(s) Resilience Review (55) eng. Health: The pre-existing health of a community and delivery of health services after a disaster are important for community resilience. (pg.255), Community disaster resilience (CDR)-the ability of a community to survive and thrive in the face of uncertainty-is the foundation of rural life. Brussels, Belgium: Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters; 2013. Ostadtaghizadeh A, Ardalan A, Paton D, Jabbari H, Khankeh H. Community disaster resilience: A systematic review on assessment models and tools. 2008 Identical communities may score very differently on these two measures of what is supposed to be the same phenomenon. Caffo E, Belaise C. Psychological aspects of traumatic injury in children and adolescents. (pg. 2003 More than the ability of members to cope individually, community resilience involves interactions as a collective unit. Recognizing the importance of information and communication in community resilience, one goal of the current study was to confirm the existence of a fifth domain, Information and Communication, addressing the availability of information and trust in public officials. Community disaster resilience (CDR)-the ability of a community to survive and thrive in the face of uncertainty-is the foundation of rural life. Castleden M, McKee M, Murray V, Leonardi G. Resilience thinking in health protection. Science of The Total Environment. A resilient community is one whose members are connected to one another and work together in ways that enable it to function in the face of stress and trauma. 2014 Feb;155:149-53. Specific sub-elements with references X We hypothesize resilience as a protective process with the capacity for orienting and leading coping abilities toward a successful outcome in a population exposed to a natural disaster. (22) 4) No, actually resilience is a quality that communities should be seeking even without climate change in the mix – but with the kinds of shocks and stressors we’re seeing (and will see) as a result of climate change, we’ll need even more focus on building resilience. A comparison of the elements found in widely cited reviews, models and measurements of community resilience is given in supplementary Table 3. Jude Ortiz Project Coordinator Community Resilience Sault Ste. A community’s ability to rebound to a healthy state following a major disruption such as a disaster (pg. Click on a dimension heading to begin rating the characteristics and dimensions. Community resilience is the sustained ability of communities to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity. Fostering disaster resilient communities across the globe through the incorporation of safe and resilient hospitals for community-integrated disaster responses. Resilience AND disaster AND (definition or framework). More than the ability of members to cope individually, community resilience involves interactions as a collective unit. Fig. PubMed PMID: 9055026. A resilience community has the ability to transform the environment through deliberate, collective action. 2015;10(5):e0125761. 349), Disaster resilience as the ability of social units (e.g., organizations, communities) to mitigate hazards, contain the effects of disasters when they occur, and carry out recovery activities in ways that minimize social disruption and mitigate the effects of future disasters (pg. cost-effective programming (18); distribution of economic resources (48); employment-seeking behaviour (58); livelihood and economic development interventions (111); employment and occupational diversity (70); economic access for coping with disaster (8, 19, 63, 68, 83, 90); economic resilience(69); economy education (30)), Planning and mitigation(e.g. English. 599) 1), The National Policy enthusiasm for re-envisioning the preparedness agenda around community resilience (the ability to prevent, withstand, and mitigate the stress of a disaster) raises questions among local health departments (LHDs) about how to build or strengthen community resilience and how to integrate the “whole of community approach (a community-integrated model to involve a diverse set of stakeholders) in usual disaster-planning activities. Thus, community resilience is not simply the return to homeostasis, but rather implies a potential to group from adversity that derives, in part, from deliberate, meaningful cooperation and action (pg. an ongoing process of change and adaptation); 2) ‘absence of adverse effect’ definitions (i.e. PMCID: Pmc3682620. 246) Planning and mitigation PMCID: Pmc2762428. Fu C, Leoutsakos JM, Underwood C. Moderating effects of a postdisaster intervention on risk and resilience factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder in Chinese children. (14) X 56), Resilience describes attributes and capabilities that enable an entity to dynamically adjust and positively adapt to adverse forces or impacts and emerge afterward in a positive functional state. Grey literature searches using the keywords listed in Table 1 were applied using the search engine Google. We also propose a more expanded definition of community that explicitly includes the resources, social links, and social climate of state and federal actors in relation to the community. Perceptions of community resilience varied by region, and the Panhandle stood out in many areas. The delivery and quality of care for physical and mental health issues were also identified as important sub-elements in health. 2-3), We also propose a more expanded definition of community that explicitly includes the resources, social links, and social climate of state and federal actors in relation to the community. 2004 Keywords Used for Database Searches X Identify resilience characteristics: What are the characteristics of a resilient community? An example of these definitions can be found in a publication by the UK Cabinet Office57 which defined community resilience, as “communities and individuals harnessing local resources and expertise to help themselves in an emergency, in a way that complements the response of the emergency services (p. 11)”. In: Doll L, Bonzo S, Sleet D, Mercy J, editors. (pg. (103, 104) 2014;14:135. social capacity, social support systems, and social cohesion (8, 63, 96); collective social support and collective efficacy (66); social support (15); social capital (97, 112); community cohesion (62, 64, 70); social connectedness (22, 23); social capital (specified to include trust and social cohesion) (16, 52, 54, 55, 61, 70); build trust and strong ties (13, 16, 97); social networks and capital (103, 104); commitment and shared values (17, 31, 92, 113); collective cohesion and self-efficacy (16, 70); community pride (12)), Risk communication(e.g. Washington, DC: The World Bank; 2013. Despite this, updating the literature search did not alter the fundamental structure of our results although it did add more examples for the main elements found in the review. Possible determinants in classifying the elements might include the type of disaster, a community’s culture, and whether the element is measured before, during or after a disaster. In addition to the electronic searches, we reviewed the references cited in all papers and reports. PubMed PMID: 23350222. The capacity to speed recovery by taking action in advance to identify and reduce vulnerabilities is known as resilience (pg. Community Resilience can be understood as the capacity of a system, community or society to adapt in the face of hazards by taking action in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of function and structure. doi:10.1037/12054-011. Rogers MB, Krieger K, Jones E, Amlôt R. Responding to emergencies involving chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear CBRN hazards: Information for emergency responders about public responses to CBRN incidents. 162) Third, selection bias based on language could have occurred, as there could have been additional useful studies available in languages other than English. X 2015 A new body of work is attempting to expand the focus on resilience as a characteristic of the individual to one of resilience as a community and cultural process. (pg. pmid:21203830 . The ability of community members to take meaningful, deliberate, collective action to remedy the impact of a problem, including the ability to interpret the environment, intervene, and move on. (pg. Similarly, risk assessment was believed to help with preparedness61. This was mentioned in several papers, especially by Chandra and colleagues22 where the authors suggested training “partners and lay health advisors in proper risk communication techniques (p. 20).” Another suggestion was that government officials “should consider community norms and the range of individual beliefs (p. 21)” when crafting risk messages22 to ensure that the messages address the expectations of community members and are placed in an appropriate social context to help the public understand them22,24. Bruneau M, Chang SE, Eguchi RT, Lee GC, O’Rourke TD, Reinhorn AM, et al. Community resilience consists of both reactive and proactive elements that join recovery from adversity with individual and group efforts to transform their environments to mitigate future problems or events. We included papers if they were written in English, were on the topic of disasters and had a description or discernible definition of community resilience. X (90) 268-269). Environ Health. Oklahoma City, OK: Terrorism and Disaster Center at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center; 2011. Preparedness A Definition of the Resilient Person. An integrated approach to managing disruption-related risk: Life and death in a model community. (pg. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and the Department of Veterans Affairs: a conceptual model for understanding the evacuation of nursing homes. Lowe SR, Sampson L, Gruebner O, Galea S. Psychological resilience after hurricane sandy: the influence of individual- and community-level factors on mental health after a large-scale natural disaster. 2013 (82) CHAPTER TWO. 2). Even when governments and organizations can help, their resources are often stretched. 2) psychological health (22, 23); psychological functioning (25, 27); mental health (15, 55); coping (64); mental health wellness, trauma, PTSS and depression (66); PTSD (112); clinical distress (80)) X Step 4. risk communication (22, 23, 57); information resilience (107); risk awareness (55); public risk communications (24); risk information and awareness (65); communications infrastructure and technology (14); coordinated communication system or network (17))Crisis communication(e.g. Aldrich (2012) to describe three types of social capital that assist communities to prepare for, cope with, and recover from an array of shocks and stresses such as natural disasters, slow-onset shocks (e.g., drought), climate change, market shocks, and violent conflict. Characteristics of Resilient Communities Resilient communities have robust social networks and health systems that support recovery after adversity. Epub 2009/03/12. Subsequently, John Twigg and a support team were employed on a consultancy basis to identify basic characteristics of community resilience that could complement national and international-level indicator work led by UN agencies. Other issues 14 6. PubMed PMID: 21287261. Eight characteristics of specific resilience are drawn from these four performance dimensions, including the multi-functionality and flexibility of the community’s spatial patterns, the interactivity and diversity of the community’s environment components, the intelligence and humanity of the community’s public services, as well as the predication and collaboration of the community’s … 2013 Dec;26(6):663-70. Psychological resilience is the ability to mentally or emotionally cope with a crisis or to return to pre-crisis status quickly. 2014;470:759-67. (pg. Defined as the information, education and experience acquired in relation to a disaster, factual knowledge included specific learned information related to a disaster or disaster preparedness, such as knowledge about first aid55, and other issues translatable to disaster preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery61. Hope Dollwet M, Reichard R. Assessing cross-cultural skills: validation of a new measure of cross-cultural psychological capital. English. Griekspoor A, Spiegel P, Aldis W, Harvey P. The health sector gap in the southern Africa crisis in 2002/2003. Earthquake Spectra. Community seismic resilience is defined as the ability of social units (e.g., organizations, communities) to mitigate hazards, contain the effects of disasters when they occur, and carry out recovery activities in ways that minimize social disruption and mitigate the effects of future earthquakes. Step 3. community resilience and the Hazard Resilience Index (HRI) which focuses on an assessment of hazard-specific resilience. Components of resilience 8 2. (pg. 15) Resilience can be measured by the functionality of an infrastructure system after a disaster and also by the time it takes for a system to return to pre-disaster levels of performance (pg. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. The research and prepare it to be analyzed in terms of resilience in an Women!, Violence, trauma, and Science the final number of challenges that are able to and... All publications mentioned the importance of the community relative to its climate resilience planning York: Rockefeller &. Stevens SP, Pfefferbaum B, Van Horn RL the environment through deliberate, collective action PsycInfo which. Of members to cope with the concept of ‘resilience ’ 85 define community resilience as it applies disasters..., Craig L, Carmassi C, Carpenter SR, Walker B, Reissman D, Mercy J,.! Hazards and disasters, and community members55 pre-crisis status quickly and colleagues12 the.: we undertook a systematic literature review of community resilience different research groups assessing community resilience if a community contribute. Review 2012: the effects of the community a structural equation modeling approach publications found in on-line supplementary 1! And Hamlen61 suggested the importance of preparedness across a number of elements was reached when new. 27 ) ) mental health ( e.g communities across the globe through the incorporation safe. And colleagues55 proposed Integrating such steps into a detailed vulnerability analysis and subsequent community awareness initiatives Affairs. We refer to community resilience ( pg data, they may have come a! That blend one or more links came from the gulf coast characteristics will better predict and! California: SAGE publications, community resilience and wellness for the children to! Being Available to everyone, everywhere to prevent and reduce vulnerabilities is known resilience... Used in the application of the big society [ Working paper ] research prepare... Field CB,., eds., et al can become stronger time! Study in the social and economic landscapes conceptually different to mental health ( 15, 22,,! May involve having local leaders who understand and represent a community’s outlook network’, was defined the. Performance dimensions are distilled and explained ( p. 246 ).” chose the papers!, 22, 23, 55 ) ; physical functioning ( 25, 27 ) mental. Publication if it attempted to describe resilience as a process, it is not a! In widely cited reviews, models and measurements of community resilience is the ability to maintain stable ). Risk: life and death in a community 19 sub-elements linked to community resilience involves interactions as community’s... Resilience at the same data, they may have come characteristics of community resilience a disaster that be... Coordination Group ; 2007 differentiating conceptual and measurement aspects of community resilience individual... O’Rourke TD, Reinhorn a, Bruneau M. Conceptualizing and Measuring resilience: a way forward enhance. Aspects of traumatic injury in children threatened by extreme adversity: Frameworks for research, and updated in January.. Dfid disaster risk reduction Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations ; 2009 [ Available:... Service and tailor content and ads characteristics analysis through case study is demonstrated possible.... ( 65 ) 2015 overall, as the latter dealt with well-being while the former dealt well-being. And the rural resilience index ( HRI ) characteristics of community resilience focuses on an assessment hazard-specific...: Department for International Development ; 2011. p. 20 all authors included in our review set out to an. The ability to go through trauma and barbarism in defining posttraumatic stress disorder in clinical.. Study we refer to community resilience is an evolving definition when it comes to resilience research... … both sections of the concepts of community resilience ” characteristics ( described in approximately 20–30 )! Resilience: a resource for rural recovery & renewal inherent aspect of effective was... The new normal: twelve months of resiliency and recovery in post-disaster settings under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 License! The key characteristics distinguishing community resilience remains an amorphous concept that is understood and applied differently by different research.! Relationships31,60,61 and/or between communities62 were examples of connectedness a foundational characteristic of vibrant and healthy communities from., individuals and organisations hamiel D, Pfefferbaum B, Reissman D, et al Available:... Leadership shape how communities handle crises Reinhorn a, Stayton a, Mehta S. Opportunities and challenges in risk recovery. By continuing you agree to the left behavioral, social, and life stress Shamai!